Geography Grade 8 Pretest/assessment ( Question and Answers)

Geography Grade 8 Pretest/assessment ( Question and Answers)

 

Type

Multiple Choice (66)Short Constructed Response (19)Extended Constructed Response (10)

 

Content Area

Space and Place (43)Environment and Society (20)Spatial Dyn. & Connections (32)

 

Cognitive Level

Knowing (43)Understanding (28)Applying (24)

 

 

 

Atlas [1]

These documents are in PDF format. Click on the appropriate link to explore the maps.

 

 

 page 5-29, plus inside page

 page 30-55

 page 56-79

 page 80-95

 

Atlas [2]

These documents are in PDF format. Click on the appropriate link to explore the maps.

 

 

 pages 6-57

 pages 60-85, index and world facts

 

 

 

1.   On the map on page 2, draw an X on the spot of the earthquake’s epicenter.

 

Scoring Guide

 

Score & Description

Complete

The response shows an X close to the center of the 20-mile circle. The intersection of X must be on or in the circular "template" on the screen.

Partial

The response shows the intersection of X on or inside the 20-mile circle but not on or in the central template as described for level 3.

Inappropriate

The response shows the intersection of X outside the 20-mile circle or the response includes multiple X’s.

 

Student demonstrates understanding of the term "epicenter."

Note: Look at the complete diagram; often there is more than one X present.

 

 

 

2.   The dotted line running across the map represents a

A.     major highway

B.     river

C.     fault line

D.     contour line

 

Key

 C

 

 

3.   Which city probably suffered the most damage in the earthquake?

A.     Lappington

B.     San Miguel

C.     Sun City

D.     Biddleburg

 

Key

 B

 

 

4.   The intensity of this earthquake would be measured in terms of

A.     isotherms

B.     the Richter scale

C.     the celsius scale

D.     barometric pressure

 

Key

 B

The following question is based on the following map.

 

 

5.   The varying widths of the lines on the map most probably indicate the

A.     strength of ocean currents

B.     type of trade

C.     volume of trade

D.     type of transportation used

 

Key

 C

The following question is based on the following map.

 

 

6.   The movement of what international product is shown on the map? Give two reasons why the product is shipped to the places indicated on the map.

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

 

Scoring Guide

 

Score & Description

Complete

The response indicates that the product is oil (or petroleum, crude fuels, crude, fossil fuels). The response gives two reasons why oil is shipped to the places indicated on the map.

Partial

The response correctly identifies the product as oil, and may or may not give one reason for why it is shipped.

Inappropriate

The response does not correctly identify the product as oil or give two reasons for why it is shipped.

 

Student demonstrates knowledge of the general pattern of petroleum import/export and the reasons for the trade.

Notes:

 

Credited responses could include

 

Countries that import oil

 

 are industrialized—need fuel as an energy source or for something—factories, cars, etc.;

 are insufficient or have no reserves;

 can’t produce because of expense of extracting from own country; and/or

 are conserving of own resources — cheaper abroad.

"Industrialized" by itself is okay. Countries that export

 have excess reserves/must have excess of oil;

 can profit from sale; and/or

 earn foreign currency for economic development.

Also accepted

 Oil—some places don’t have much; Middle East has plenty. Score is 3

Not Accepted

 gasoline, fuel, natural gas;

 oil without reason for trade is 2;

 oil with one correct reason is 2;

 oil with two correct reasons is 3;

 two correct reasons but no oil is 1.

 

 

 

7.   Give two reasons why early civilizations flourished in the valley of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers.

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

 

Scoring Guide

 

Score & Description

Complete

The response gives two valid reasons why river valleys were important to the early civilization of Iraq.

Partial

The response gives only one valid reason for the importance of the river valley to the ancient civilization of Iraq or, it mentions two reasons but one is unclear or general.

Inappropriate

The response gives no reasons for the importance of river valleys in the ancient civilization of Iraq. It may provide an inadequate response, such as, people settled in the valley because it was the best place to live.

 

The following question refers to the two population pyramids below.

 

 

8.   What percentage of the total population of Country 1 is age 70 or over?

A.     1.0%

B.     1.2%

C.     2.2%

D.     3.0%

 

Key

 C

The following question refers to the two population pyramids below.

 

 

9.   Describe the difference in population patterns for people age 60 and over in countries 1 and 2. Give one possible explanation for the difference you have identified.

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

 

Scoring Guide

 

Score & Description

Complete

The response identifies one difference in age distribution above age 60 between the two countries and gives a correct explanation. Correct answers may be chosen from the list given or include some other appropriate response.

Partial

The response identifies one difference between the two population pyramids over the age of 60, but does not give a correct explanation of the difference

OR

 

Gives a difference that relates to absolute numbers with an acceptable reason

 

Inappropriate

The response does not give any acceptable reason to explain the difference in age distributions over the age of 60 between the two countries as suggested in the list below.

 

10.    Major oil-producing nations joined together to form the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) as a means of

A.     increasing their control of markets and prices for their product

B.     limiting the access of other nations to solar power

C.     promoting the production of high-quality fossil fuels

D.     improving communication and transportation among developing nations

 

Key

 A

11.    Tropical forests are being destroyed at the rate of at least eleven million hectares each year, an area the size of Pennsylvania. About half of all tropical forests are already gone.

Discuss two major reasons for this high rate of tropical deforestation.

 

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

 

Scoring Guide

 

Score & Description

Complete

The response provides two reasons for tropical deforestation.

Partial

The response provides one reason for tropical deforestation.

Inappropriate

The response does not provide any appropriate reasons why the rates of tropical deforestation are high. Responses may provide incorrect answers such as: the rates of deforestation are high because people are cutting down trees.

 

12.    What religion is practiced by most people who live in India?

A.     Confucianism

B.     Buddhism

C.     Christianity

D.     Hinduism

 

Key

 D

13.    How do the forces listed below affect the natural environment?

Gravity

Ice

Water

Wind

 

 

A.     They are major causes of erosion.

B.     They are important influences on human settlement.

C.     They are responsible for seismic activity.

D.     They cause continental drift.

 

Key

 A

The following question refers to the passage below.

When the warm ocean current El Niño replaces the cooler Peruvian, or Humboldt, current along the coast of Peru, the supplies of anchovies on which sea birds feed decrease. As a result, the number of sea birds roosting on the coastal islands decreases.

 

 

14.    The passage describes the effect of El Niño on Peru’s

A.     wind currents

B.     weather

C.     ecosystem

D.     coastal erosion

 

Key

 C

The following question refers to the passage below.

When the warm ocean current El Niño replaces the cooler Peruvian, or Humboldt, current along the coast of Peru, the supplies of anchovies on which sea birds feed decrease. As a result, the number of sea birds roosting on the coastal islands decreases.

 

 

15.    In Peru, the developments described have an impact on

A.     the money earned from tourists who visit its beaches

B.     the ability of ships to dock at its ports

C.     warm weather in coastal areas

D.     the export of anchovies

 

Key

 D

 

 

16.    The map above shows the changes in the population center of the United States over a 200-year period of time.

Identify and explain some important factors that contributed to the changes in the population center shown on the map.

 

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

 

Scoring Guide

 

Score & Description

Complete

The response states or implies an understanding of the population trend shown on the map. The response explains at least two factors that significantly contributed to the westward movement (or southern movement, if explained correctly). TREND and two factors

Essential

The response states or implies an implicit understanding of the trend shown on the map AND the response explains one factor that significantly contributed to the westward movement. TREND and one factor

Partial

The response states or implies an implicit understanding of the trend shown on the map. The response does not explain any factors that significantly contributed to the westward movement OR gives at least one significant migration factor, but does not relate it to the westward trend. TREND or one factor

Inappropriate

The response does not address the trend shown in the map or give any acceptable reasons contributing to this trend, such as those in the list given. Unacceptable reasons might be such as, people are always moving.

 

17.    Look at the table above. The region described in this table is

A.     South America

B.     Africa

C.     North America

D.     Oceania

 

Key

 A

18.    The "Corn Belt" is a region defined on the basis of

A.     population

B.     economic activity

C.     transportation networks

D.     political organization

 

Key

 B

Question 19 refers to Atlas [1]                                               

19.    Look at the World Facts page inside the front cover of the atlas. Which continent contains the most large urban areas?

A.     Africa

B.     Asia

C.     North America

D.     South America

 

Key

 B

Question 20 refers to Atlas [1]                                               

20.    In 1990 Iraq invaded and occupied Kuwait. Look at pages 72 and 73 of the atlas. Based on the geography of the region, give two reasons why Iraq might have wanted to take control of Kuwait.

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

 

Scoring Guide

Sample Correct Responses:

Student demonstrates understanding of how geography of a region can lead to conflicts between countries.

 

Score & Description

Complete

Response gives two reasons, based on regional geography, why Iraq wanted to take control of Kuwait.

Partial

Response gives one reason, based on regional geography, why Iraq wanted to take control of Kuwait.

Inappropriate

Response does not give any reasons, based on regional geography, why Iraq wanted to take control of Kuwait.

 

Credited responses could include:

 Iraq could have gained access to additional oil in Kuwait and Persian Gulf (including Bahrain, Qatar, and U.A.E.)

 Iraq could have gained a longer shoreline on Persian Gulf from which it could disrupt or control oil shipping.

 Iraq would have moved closer to the Saudi Arabian oil fields

 Taking over Kuwait would give Iraq military strategic advantages for other attacks.

 Kuwait is by the water/has access to the coast.

 

Question 21 refers to Atlas [1]                                               

21.    Look at the time zone map on page 19. If it is 2:00 A.M. on July 15 in Jakarta, Indonesia, what is the time and date in Edmonton, Canada?

A.     12:00 noon, July 14

B.     5:00 P.M., July 14

C.     11:00 A.M., July 15

D.     6:00 P.M., July 16

 

Key

 A

Question 22 refers to Atlas [1]                                               

22.    Look at page 47 of the atlas. Study the small map showing distances drawn with red lines. What can you learn from this map?

A.     Ships going from New York to South America must go through the Panama Canal.

B.     Ships going from San Francisco to South America must go through the Panama Canal.

C.     Without the Panama Canal, ships would have to travel 13,000 miles to get from New York to San Francisco.

D.     Without the Panama Canal, ships would have to travel 8,370 kilometers to get from San Francisco to New York.

 

Key

 C

Question 23 refers to Atlas [1]                                               

23.    You are writing a report about the growth and development of cities (urbanization) in the United States. Pages 32-35 and 40-41 in the atlas contain maps and charts that would be useful to you when writing your report. Identify three specific maps or charts from these pages that you would use. In the spaces below, write the names of the maps or charts and explain how the information in each one helps you understand urbanization.

1. Map or chart:_____________________________

Explanation:

 

__________________________________________________________________

 

__________________________________________________________________

 

__________________________________________________________________

2. Map or chart:_____________________________

Explanation:

 

__________________________________________________________________

 

__________________________________________________________________

 

__________________________________________________________________

3. Map or chart:_____________________________

Explanation:

 

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

 

Scoring Guide

Sample Correct Responses:

Student demonstrates understanding of urbanization and ability to find appropriate information in an atlas.

 

Score & Description

Complete

Response identifies three maps/charts from the designated pages with useful information regarding U.S. urbanization, and provides explanations of how each map/chart is useful/pertinent.

Essential

Response identifies two or three maps/charts with useful information and gives two explanations.

Partial

Response identifies one, two, or three maps/charts with useful information and gives one explanation.

Inappropriate

Response may or may not identify maps/charts with useful information but does not explain how any of them are useful.

 

Notes:

 

Credit is awarded only to answers that pair a map/chart with an acceptable explanation. No credit is awarded for naming a map/chart with no explanation or for an explanation when no map/chart is identified.

 

Credited responses could include:

     Physical map of the United States (pp.32-33) can be used to gain information on the physical features associated with urbanization

Credit:

 Find out which cities are located near rivers

 Fewer cities in mountainous regions

��� Shows elevation at which people live

Do Not Credit:

 "Shows the elevation of the states"

 Answers that refer to the relative size of cities

 

 

     Political map of the United States (pp. 34-35) shows spatial distribution of urban areas of different size, plus location of state capitals.

Credit:

 Shows the size of cities/relative size of cities

 Shows the location of cities

Do Not Credit:

 "Cities" (must qualify answer with location, size, distribution, etc.)

 "Capitals, cities, boundaries" (this comes directly from the map legend)

 

 

     Land Use map (p. 40 top) shows the close association between land use and urbanization.

Credit:

 Urban areas are characterized by trade and manufacturing

 Land use map shows that people live where they do due to the type of jobs or occupations that exist

 "You might want to know what they do in the city"

 "To show why people moved where they did."

Do Not Credit:

 references to fertile land

 "The map shows what the land is used for" (response must make some attempt to explain relationship between land use and urbanization).

 

 

     Highway map (p. 40 bottom) shows the relationship between urban areas and a major transportation network.

Credit:

 "shows accessibility to cities/between cities"

 "Highways help support urban growth"

 Shows connection of cities to suburbs

 Denser highway system in east is related to more urbanization there.

Do Not Credit:

 Responses that copy from text "Can you get there from here?" next to map.

 

 

     Population map (p. 40) shows the spatial distribution of population in relation to urban areas. The map shows density, not actual population, so accept answers that recognize the density issue even if they do not use the term. If response does not talk about spatial distribution or density, it must be explicit about how the information in the map is related to urbanization.

 

Credit:

 Shows where cities have developed

 Population in and around cities is denser than population elsewhere

 "The population tends to increase toward the east (with exception of California)."

 "It shows you where the most highly populated areas are." (or "heavily populated")

 "It shows you where the urban areas are located."

 "Shows where cities have developed"

 "Tells you how many people there are per square mile in each area."

 "Can tell where population is more dense."

 "It shows how people are spread out."

 "It tells you which places have the most people."

Do Not Credit:

 "It shows where people are right now." (too vague)

 "Can see how populated an area is."

 "To see how populated some areas are."

 "You need to see how many people are in a place to see if it grew."

 "To show how much the population has grown."

 "To show how many people there are."

 

 

     Urban Population pie graph (p.40) shows growth in urban population and percentage of the U.S. population living in urban and rural areas.

Credit:

 Shows where most people live.

 "Shows the growth of the urban population."

 "It shows the percent of people living in urban areas"

 "Shows how cities grew from 1920 till today."

 

Question 24 refers to Atlas [1]                                               

24.    Look at the United States annual rainfall and growing season maps on pages 36 and 37 of the atlas.

 

Which of the following states has the most area with an annual rainfall of 20 to 40 inches AND a growing season of 4 to 6 months?

A.     Oklahoma

B.     Iowa

C.     New Mexico

D.     Wyoming

 

Key

 B

Question 25 refers to Atlas [1]                                               

25.    Look at the maps on pages 66 and 67 of the atlas. Find the parts of Europe where the natural vegetation is grassland. What type of land use occurs in most of these areas?

A.     Manufacturing and trade

B.     Ranching and grazing

C.     Forest products

D.     Crops and livestock

 

Key

 D

Question 26 refers to Atlas [1]                                               

26.    Russia and Ukraine share many cultural traits. This is partly because there has been continuous interaction between Russian and Ukrainian populations over several centuries.

 

Now look at the physical map of Europe on pages 60 and 61 of the atlas. Based on the map, identify two physical characteristics of the regions that might have helped the interaction between Russian and Ukrainian populations.

1.

 

__________________________________________________________________

 

__________________________________________________________________

2.

 

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

 

Scoring Guide

Sample Correct Responses:

Student demonstrates understanding of how the location and physical features of a region can influence cultural interactions between different populations.

 

Score & Description

Complete

Response identifies two map-based reasons for interaction.

Partial

Response identifies one map-based reason for interaction.

Inappropriate

Response does not identify any reasons for interaction.

 

Credited responses could include:

Proximity:

 Shared border/countries right next to each other

 Same type of land, so peoples may have similar cultures

Barriers:

 Relatively flat land between two nations / same elevation / low elevation areas/"both are at the same sea level" (i.e., same elevation)

 No water barrier for several hundred miles

 No mountain barriers

 Both are on the European Plain

Connections:

 Connecting rivers or waterways making trade easier—can give the names of these rivers. "They share rivers."

 Both countries share the Black Sea (must give name of sea)

 Both countries share the Sea of Azov

 Share coast lines, waterways

 

Question 27 refers to Atlas [1]                                               

27.    Find the political map of Africa on page 55 and the land use map on page 59. Which city is a major center of manufacturing and trade?

A.     Kinshasa, Congo

B.     Tunis, Tunisia

C.     Lusaka, Zambia

D.     Luanda, Angola

 

Key

 A

Question 28 refers to Atlas [1]                                               

28.    First look at the map of coral reefs on page 95 of the atlas. Next look at the population map on page 18. Coral reefs are in danger of becoming extinct because of environmental changes caused by humans.

 

In which region of the world are coral reefs most threatened by dense human populations?

A.     Western Africa near Liberia and the Ivory Coast

B.     The Persian Gulf near Iran and Saudi Arabia

C.     South Asia near India and Sri Lanka

D.     South America near Argentina and Chile

 

Key

 C

Question 29 refers to Atlas [1]                                               

29.    Look at the maps of Australia on pages 88–93 of the atlas.

Identify the region in Australia where most people live.

 

__________________________________________________________________

 

__________________________________________________________________

Using information from the maps, give one reason that explains the settlement pattern of Australia.

 

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

 

Scoring Guide

Sample Correct Responses:

Student demonstrates ability to find relevant information from among several maps and to read population density map, and demonstrates understanding of factors affecting settlement patterns.

 

Score & Description

Complete

Response correctly identifies that most people in Australia live in coastal areas, particularly in the southeast, and gives one reason to explain this settlement pattern.

Partial

Response correctly identifies that most people in Australia live in coastal areas, particularly in the southeast, but does not explain settlement pattern

 

 

OR

 

 

Response partly identifies where most people in Australia live and gives one reason to explain the settlement pattern.

Inappropriate

Response does not identify or explain settlement pattern

 

Credited responses for Where most people live:

 Near the water, along the coast, near the coast for water, by the ocean

 Most people live in the Southeast.

 In the southern part

 In the east

 New South Wales and Victoria (must give both)

 

 

The following partially correct responses, when combined with a reason explaining the settlement pattern, achieve a score of 2:

 New South Wales

 Victoria

 Sidney and Melbourne (must give both)

 Urban areas, cities

 

 

Credited responses for  one reason to explain the settlement pattern:

 Factors explicitly tied to climate: Lots of rain, good climate for farming, moderate temperatures

 Access to good harbors, shipping, transportation for trade

 The middle of Australia is mostly desert/Central Australia has an inhospitable climate.

 Close to ocean resources like fishing

 Jobs and economic opportunities

 

Question 30 refers to Atlas [1]                                               

30.    Look at the political map of South America on page 49 of the atlas. Which of the following countries has its capital located in the interior?

A.     Colombia

B.     Peru

C.     Argentina

D.     Guyana

 

Key

 A

Question 31 refers to Atlas [1]                                               

31.    Look at the land use map on page 16 of the atlas and the pie charts of Japan’s trade on page 87. Which of the following countries would be the most likely source of forest products for Japan?

A.     South Korea

B.     Germany

C.     United States

D.     Australia

 

Key

 C

Question 32 refers to Atlas [1]                                               

32.    Look at the land use map of Canada on page 30 of the atlas and at the other maps of Canada on pages 26–31. Why is there no widespread use of the land along the lower border between Alberta and British Columbia?

A.     There are no major highways in the area.

B.     Numerous rivers make the ground too wet for agriculture.

C.     The area is too far from major cities.

D.     The area is covered with steep mountains.

 

Key

 D

The following question refers to the map below.

 

 

33.    Write down the name of the state or district where you live.

 

I live in

__________________________________________________________________

 

Directly on the map, draw an "X" on the state or district where you live.

 

 

Scoring Guide

 

Score & Description

Complete

The X correctly locates the state or district written on the line.

Partial

The X does not point to precisely the correct point but is in the correct region, meaning a bordering state in most areas of the country. Could credit a non-bordering state in areas of New England where the states are more difficult to locate.

 

OR

 

Response indicates a city and correctly marks the map. Scorers should consult an atlas if needed to determine if the X is appropriately placed.

Inappropriate

The X is not located in the state or district identified, the state is written with NO X PROVIDED or the x is marked and NO STATE PROVIDED.

 

The following question refers to the map below.

 

 

34.    The number 1 on the map shows

A.     Hudson Bay

B.     the Great Salt Lake

C.     Lake Superior

D.     the Gulf of California

 

Key

 C

The following question refers to the map below.

 

 

35.    The number 2 on the map is on the

A.     Colorado River

B.     Columbia River

C.     Mississippi River

D.     Delaware River

 

Key

 C

The following question refers to the map below.

 

 

36.    About how much of South America has a growing season of over 240 days?

A.     10%

B.     25%

C.     75%

D.     100%

 

Key

 C

The following question refers to the map below.

 

 

37.    The information on the map shows that

A.     Brazil has a shorter growing season than Argentina has

B.     New York has a longer growing season than Chicago has

C.     Alaska can grow a greater variety of crops than Florida can

D.     Colombia can grow a greater variety of crops than Canada can

 

Key

 D

38.    The world’s largest ocean is the

A.     Atlantic

B.     Arctic

C.     Indian

D.     Pacific

 

Key

 D

The following question is based on the map below.

 

 

39.    Where would a large city be most likely to develop?

A.     In the northeast corner of Nation B

B.     Where the Charles River meets the sea

C.     the eastern part of Nation D

D.     Near the source of the Red River

 

Key

 B

The following question is based on the map below.

 

 

40.    Which two nations are most likely to have a conflict over mineral resources?

A.     Nation A and Nation B

B.     Nation A and Nation C

C.     Nation A and Nation D

D.     Nation C and Nation D

 

Key

 C

The following question is based on the map below.

 

 

41.    Which nation is likely to have a steel industry? Explain why.

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

 

Scoring Guide

 

Score & Description

Complete

The response identifies Nation A and explains that it has both the coal and iron needed to make steel.

Partial

The response identifies Nation A with an incorrect, incomplete (it contains iron or coal), or no explanation; for example, it explains that Nation A is probable because it is the biggest country, or has access to the ocean.

Inappropriate

The response does not identify Nation A. (Response may or may not explain that both iron and coal are needed to make steel.)

 

42.    Florida is an example of

A.     an isthmus

B.     an island

C.     a peninsula

D.     a plateau

 

Key

 C

43.    What is an important reason that countries join international organizations like the United Nations?

A.     Countries who do not join usually lose their independence.

B.     Many of the world’s problems involve more than one country.

C.     Most citizens want their countries to join as many international organizations as possible.

D.     Such organizations force countries to join.

 

Key

 B

 

 

44.    Look at the photograph above. What would help farmers in this area grow more food?

A.     Cutting down forests

B.     Making terraces

C.     Building houses

D.     Irrigating the land

 

Key

 D

The following question is based on the map below, which shows public train routes.

 

 

45.    Which question could you answer based only on the information in the map?

A.     At what times do the public trains arrive?

B.     How much time does it take to go from Forest Hills to Oak Grove?

C.     How many miles is it from one station to another?

D.     How can one travel from Alewife to the Aquarium by public train?

 

Key

 D

The following question is based on the map below, which shows public train routes.

 

 

46.    Directly on the map, draw the most direct public train route you would take to get from Boston College to Braintree.

 

Scoring Guide

 

Score & Description

Complete

The response indicates the most direct, complete route with the correct origin and destination. This route goes from Boston College, to Park Street, to Washington, to Braintree.

Partial

The response indicates an indirect or incomplete route, but shows correct origin and destination.

Inappropriate

The response indicates an incorrect origin and/or destination, or draws a fictitious route.

 

47.    LITTLE TOWN

 

 

 Width: 4.0 miles east to west

 Length: 3.0 miles north to south

 Main Street runs east to west through the town.

 The school is on the northeast side of town.

 Phelps Park is on the southwest side of town.

 Runt River runs north to south through the town.

On the grid below, each square is one mile wide and one mile long. Draw a map of Little Town on the grid. Draw the town’s borders. Then, use the symbols in the key below to draw the features listed above.

 

 

 

 

Scoring Guide

 

Score & Description

Complete

The response correctly locates all four features and draws the length and width to scale in the correct directions.

Essential

The response correctly locates four features but not to scale, or correctly locates three features and has the scale correct.

Partial

The response locates only one or two features and has the scale correct, or locates three features with an incorrect scale.

Inappropriate

The response correctly locates none of the features, and makes major errors in scale and direction, or has scale correct only, or locates one or two features with incorrect scale.

 

48.    Switzerland is located in the middle of which mountain range?

A.     Alps

B.     Andes

C.     Urals

D.     Pyrenees

 

Key

 A

 

 

49.    Read the passage above. What does Chief Seattle believe about owning land?

 

__________________________________________________________________

 

__________________________________________________________________

 

Many other people in the United States hold views on owning land different from those of Chief Seattle. What are these views?

 

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

 

Scoring Guide

 

Score & Description

Complete

The response accurately presents Chief Seattle’s view on land and contrasts his view with one opposing view. Views on land may be drawn from the list given or include some other appropriate response.

Partial

The response explains Chief Seattle’s view correctly, or the view held by many other people, but not both. Views about land may be drawn from the list given, or include some other appropriate response.

Inappropriate

The response does not show an understanding of Chief Seattle’s view or the view held by many other people in the United States.

 

 

 

50.    According to the graph above, the largest oil reserves in 1986 were in the

A.     Gulf of Mexico

B.     Caribbean region

C.     Persian Gulf region

D.     Gulf of Guinea

 

Key

 C

51.    Which is the main reason that many early peoples settled in river valleys?

A.     River valleys tended to be cooler than highland regions.

B.     River valleys were virtually free of danger from wild animals.

C.     River valleys were easier to defend from attack than were highland regions.

D.     River valleys were fertile because floodwaters left rich soil on the banks.

 

Key

 D

52.    What would a scientist probably study to predict where acid rain would fall?

A.     The atomic structures of sulfur, nitrogen, and oxygen

B.     Mass-transit systems that serve major cities

C.     Wind patterns that prevail over major manufacturing areas

D.     The location of sewage-treatment plants

 

Key

 C

53.    What are the conditions that make the tundra difficult for human settlement?

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

 

Scoring Guide

 

Score & Description

Complete

The response identifies at least two characteristics of the tundra and may explain how these make it difficult for human settlement.

Partial

The response identifies only one characteristic of the tundra and may explain how this makes life difficult for human settlement.

Inappropriate

The response does not identify any characteristics of the tundra or explain how they make it difficult for human settlement. OR it provides answers that are inappropriate.

 

Credited responses could include:

 Tundra:

 climate inhospitable

 very wet

 very cold

 permafrost

 frost almost all year

 lack of vegetation to support survival

 long hours of darkness

 lots of mosquitoes in summer

 lack of precipitation (generally low precipitation)

 icy gale-like winds

 

54.    Which of the following people would probably have the greatest choice of places to live?

A.     Cattle rancher

B.     Nurse

C.     Miner

D.     Oil-refinery technician

 

Key

 B

55.    In ancient Greece, most towns were built on the tops of hills primarily because

A.     it was easier to find water on hilltops than in lowlands

B.     temperatures were warmer at high elevations

C.     defending a hill town was easier than defending a lowland town

D.     people in early Greece did not rely on farming for food

 

Key

 C

56.    Nuclear energy can be developed for peaceful purposes.

What is one argument in favor of developing nuclear energy for peaceful purposes?

 

 

__________________________________________________________________

 

__________________________________________________________________

 

__________________________________________________________________

 

What is one argument against developing nuclear energy for peaceful purposes?

 

 

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

 

Scoring Guide

 

Score & Description

Complete

The response presents one significant argument in favor of nuclear power and one significant argument against nuclear power for peaceful purposes. Correct answers may be drawn from the list given or include some other appropriate response.

Partial

The response presents a significant argument either for or against nuclear power. Other argument, if present, is insignificant or incorrect.

Inappropriate

The response fails to present a significant argument for either side of the issue. It may provide personal opinions or inaccurate assertions. Examples are that nuclear reactors are ugly, or that they are completely safe.

 

Credited Responses could include the following:

Arguments for

 smokeless power;

 reduce oil imports; and/or

 conserve other non-renewable resources such as gas, coal.

 

Arguments against

 danger of leaks or explosions;

 waste disposal (of radioactive waste, contaminated water);

 high cost of construction;

 danger of sabotage; and/or

 radiation pollution.

 

Unacceptable reasons for

 cheaper to use;

 cleaner; and/or

 when used to mean nuclear weapon.

 

Unacceptable reasons against

 "increases pollution";

 "dangerous"; and/or

 "bad for environment."

 

 

 

57.    What is an important reason that skyscrapers were built in American cities?

A.     Construction companies liked to build structures that made residents feel as if they lived in single-family houses.

B.     Skyscrapers allowed tenants to create a closer community.

C.     Skyscrapers allowed people to use small amounts of land more efficiently.

D.     Citizens wanted to be safe from street crime.

 

Key

 C

 

 

58.    The island shown on the map above has four cities—A, B, C, and D. Based only on the geographical features shown on the map, which city probably has the largest population?

A.     City A

B.     City B

C.     City C

D.     City D

 

Key

 A

59.    Detergents upset the natural balance of

A.     ocean currents

B.     the atmosphere

C.     climatic conditions

D.     lakes and streams

 

Key

 D

60.    Quebec can be considered a cultural region because of its

A.     landforms

B.     climate

C.     language

D.     economy

 

Key

 C

61.    What contributes to the greenhouse effect?

A.     Soil erosion

B.     Burning fuels such as oil, coal, and gas

C.     Failure to use crop rotation

D.     Water pollution

 

Key

 B

62.    In the space below, list one product that people in the United States eat, drink, or use every day that typically comes from another country. Then explain why the United States imports the product from another country.

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

 

Scoring Guide

 

Score & Description

Complete

The response correctly names a product that is used every day and explains why it is imported.

Partial

The response correctly names a product, but does not explain why the product is imported.

Inappropriate

The response does not name an everyday product that is commonly imported by the United States. It may describe a product which is unusual or rarely imported.

 

Credited Responses could include the following:

Products the U.S. Imports:

 

 gasoline;

 electrical equipment (stereos, radios, computers);

�� wristwatches;

 clothing;

 toys;

 foods such as types of produce (pineapples, bananas, dates, oranges) or prepared ethnic foods (caviar, olives, cheese, sugar, coffee, wine, rice, fish, grains, bottled or mineral water, tacos, spaghetti, cocoa beans, bratwurst);

 wood;

 soap;

 shoes; and/or

 cars.

 

Products not accepted:

 

 water;

 Italian food, Chinese food;

��� medicine;

 milk;

 fruits (unless specified);

 Hawaiian fruits;

 fortune cookies;

 plastic;

 tools;

 meat;

 chocolate (unless specify foreign brand); and/or

 vegetables (unless specified).

 

Examples of correct explanations:

 

 The U.S. uses more of the product than it can produce.

 It is cheaper to import the product than produce it at home.

 The U.S. does not have the climate to grow this product.

 Other countries produce the product at better quality.

 "So they can sell their products to different countries also."

 "Americans take it over here and sell it for a lot of money."

 

 

 

63.    What historical trends explain the language patterns shown in the map above? Be as specific as possible in your answer.

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

 

Scoring Guide

 

Score & Description

Complete

The response provides a specific historical explanation for these patterns, including a recognition that non-European languages have survived in some regions.

Essential

The response provides an explanation relating to either the colonizing influence  or the languages of people living in the Americas prior to colonization. Relevant examples are provided.

Partial

The response provides a general explanation of the language patterns shown, but gives no examples. For example, "people colonized from other countries"; "The language spoken is that of the country that first claimed them."

Inappropriate

The response does not explain the language patterns shown on the map, or it merely describes the map.

 

Credited responses could include:

Historical Explanation

Indo-European languages in North, Central and South America were brought by English, French, Spanish, and Portugese colonizers afer the 15th century.

Amerindian and Eskimo-Aleut languages were spoken in the Americas prior to the 15th century. They have survived mostly in remote, isolated areas.

 

 

 

The following question refers to the map below.

 

 

64.    This map would be most useful to a

A.     pilot flying from Europe to South America

B.     pilot flying from Canada to Scandinavia

C.     person sailing to Antarctica

D.     person sailing in tropical seas

 

Key

 B

The following question refers to the map below.

 

 

65.    Latitude on this map is represented by

A.     circles

B.     shaded areas

C.     straight lines

D.     convergent lines

 

Key

 A

66.    Of the following, which group would most likely be located on level land?

A.     Hydroelectric plant, national park, reservoir

B.     Orchard, coffee plantation, mine

C.     Amusement park, ski resort, quarry

D.     Railroad, city, airport

 

Key

 D

 

 

67.    The land shown in the photograph has been altered mainly to

A.     increase the beauty of the landscape

B.     increase the availability of land that can be used for farming

C.     demarcate land belonging to different people

D.     enable residents to climb the slopes more easily

 

Key

 B

The following question is based on the map below showing the distribution of earthquake epicenters around the world between 1961 and 1967.

 

 

68.    Between 1961 and 1967, the area that had the most earthquakes was the

A.     Mediterranean basin

B.     mid-Atlantic Ocean

C.     Caribbean Sea

D.     Pacific Ocean rim

 

Key

 D

The following question is based on the map below showing the distribution of earthquake epicenters around the world between 1961 and 1967.

 

 

69.    What is responsible for the pattern of earthquake activity shown on the map?

A.     Volcanic eruptions

B.     The weight of ocean water pressing on the land

C.     Hurricanes and cyclones

D.     The movement of tectonic plates

 

Key

 D

 

 

70.    Look at the map above, which shows three possible routes for a railroad line that will be built to connect Red City with Bluetown.

Which route would be the least expensive to construct?

 

 

__________________________________________________________________

 

Give two reasons why the route you chose would be the least expensive.

1.

__________________________________________________________________

 

__________________________________________________________________

 

__________________________________________________________________

 

 

2.

 

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

 

Scoring Guide

 

Score & Description

Complete

The response indicates that C is the least expensive route to construct. Must give two reasons why (may relate to A and B).

Partial

The response indicates that C is the least expensive route to construct and gives one reason.

Inappropriate

The response indicates that A or B or C would be the least expensive route to construct but gives no reasons.

 

Sample Responses

 flat land

 no mountain (or hills)

 no tunnels

 no bridges

 wouldn’t have to go through mountains

 not as many bends and curves

 

71.    People from many different countries live in New York City. Children speaking many different languages attend its public schools. This is mainly because New York City

A.     has an efficient transportation system

B.     has a higher wage rate than other United States cities

C.     is a port of entry for people from other parts of the world

D.     is the site of the United Nations headquarters

 

Key

 C

72.    In the mid-nineteenth century, before railroads were constructed, people in the United States transported commercial materials, such as timber and coal, over long distances primarily by means of

A.     rivers and canals

B.     turnpikes and freeways

C.     pack horses and mule trains

D.     ox carts and Conestoga wagons

 

Key

 A

73.    The major areas of wheat production in the world are the central United States and Canada, Ukraine, south central Australia, and the pampas of Argentina. What is the characteristic shared by these areas that explains their role in wheat production?

A.     All have rainy, damp climates.

B.     All are near sea coasts.

C.     All are plains.

D.     All are in highland regions.

 

Key

 C

 

 

74.    What is the dominant trend shown in the graph?

 

__________________________________________________________________

 

__________________________________________________________________

 

__________________________________________________________________

 

__________________________________________________________________

 

__________________________________________________________________

 

Give two major reasons for the trend shown.

 

 

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

 

Scoring Guide

 

Score & Description

Complete

The response identifies the major trend in the graph and provides two appropriate reasons.

Partial

The response identifies the major trend in the graph but gives either no reason, or only one reason, to explain this. Or, the response provides two appropriate reasons, but fails to identify the trend.

Inappropriate

The response does not indicate the major trend shown in the graph, but may give one reason for the trend as suggested in the list given. It may just copy words from chart.

 

Credited responses may include:

Trend in Graph

An increase in the number of United States citizens traveling to Europe between 1948 and 1991.

 

 Also accept:

 increase in  travel or departures

 "more people are traveling to Europe between 1948 and 1991"

 "more people traveled to Europe after the 1970’s"

 

 Do not accept:

 "more people are leaving"

 up and down and up, etc.

 "it increased each year"

 

Appropriate Reasons

 

 Improvements in travel

��� air travel is more affordable

 air travel is faster

 air travel is safer

 travel is easier

 more planes are available

 

 Increase in tourism

 more leisure time

 more affluence

 aging population

 

 Internationalization of economy

 more business travel

 more political travel

 more student exchange

 

75.    Fossil fuels such as oil and coal are formed from

A.     geological processes that transform organic materials

B.     the rapid decay of animal bones

C.     organic processes that lead to the fossilization of animal tissue

D.     artificial processes used to treat and reuse garbage

 

Key

 A

76.    After we anchored our ships in the ocean and went ashore to explore, we marched west. The forest was so thick we could only travel three miles in the first two days. Then we came to the mountains and climbed to the top. A rushing river flowed west out of the mountains. We continued to march two miles west and came down out of the mountains. Two miles further we came to the coast. It was obvious that the area we were exploring was an isthmus.

In the box below, draw a map of the region described above. Be sure to include all of the geographical elements mentioned in the description. Include a scale to indicate distances.

 

 

 

 

 

Scoring Guide

 

Score & Description

Complete

The response includes an accurate map in which at least 4 elements are correctly placed. The response must be an isthmus and have direction of travel and river correct.

Essential

The response includes a map in which 3 elements are correctly placed. The response may be a peninsula or an island.

Partial

The response includes a map in which at least 2 elements are correctly placed.

Inappropriate

The response does not include a map or the map shows none of the elements correctly.

 

Features on Map

East Coast

Forest

Mountains

River flowing west

West coast

 

77.    An example of diffusion is that crops that were once grown mostly in North and South America are

A.     now grown all over the world

B.     now grown only in areas where productivity is high

C.     now grown only in the Northern Hemisphere

D.     no longer grown there

 

Key

 A

 

 

78.    Environmental issues are viewed differently by people in different circumstances. Explain how the artist makes this point in the cartoon.

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

 

Scoring Guide

 

Score & Description

Complete

 

 Shows full understanding of cartoon and its meaning.

 Discusses environmental issue

 Tension (implied or stated) between the 2 worlds

 Hypocrisy (not absolutely necessary if tension clearly discussed)

�� Must give different viewpoints–developed vs. developing countries (rich vs. poor)

 Must give explanation of 1 viewpoint

 Discussion on national level

 

Essential

Must show that there are  TWO different views–developed and developing (2 views need to mention trees  and car pollution)–with or without tension

      OR

shows hypocrisy (implied or stated)–needs to talk about tree or car, i.e., understand cartoon

(brief mention of cartoon’s essential point–understand contradiction or conflict)

Partial

Gives a brief mention of environmental issues (no matter how obscure or tenuous)

      OR

gives one viewpoint correctly

Inappropriate

Responds to cartoon but has no understanding of environmental issues.

 

Examples of Essential responses:

 "The guy’s yelling at the lumberjack cutting down a tree but his car is dumping tons of pollution into the air."

Both people are depicted as doing something wrong…

 "Man in car needs trees to provide oxygen so his car pollution won’t hurt ozone. Guy chopping down tree doesn’t think that one tree gone would hurt the oxygen supply."

 "If you’re not taking care of the environment, don’t tell others what to do."

 

Examples of Partial responses:

 

 "He is telling the man not to chop down the tree because we need it for oxygen."

 "Artist says you need to protect trees and the car had developed countries on it because developed countries aren’t paying attention to environmental problems."

 "He says that because pollution is bad, he needs trees to protect him."

 "trees make air"

 "one man is driving a car that pollutes the air and the other is cutting down a tree"

 

Example of Inappropriate responses:

 

 "don’t cut down trees"

 "greenhouse effect" (without elaboration)

 "some people care about the environment, but some don’t"

 "cares about environment" (without saying who)

 "people in developing countries don’t care about the environment"

 

79.    In the United States, most of the fertile soils of the Midwest were derived from

A.     glaciers

B.     volcanic activity

C.     decaying organic matter

D.     eroded sandstone

 

Key

 A

80.    Under which of the following circumstances would you be most likely to find snow in equatorial regions?

A.     In areas below sea level

B.     In areas at high latitudes

C.     In areas at high elevations

D.     In winter

 

Key

 C

 

AVERAGE ANNUAL PRECIPITATION FOR LAKESIDE

Season

Spring

Summer

Fall

Winter

 

Total

 

Average Inches

5.0

7.0

4.0

4.0

 

20.0

 

Percent of Total

25

35

20

20

 

100

 

 

 

 

 

81.    Use the information in the table above to construct a pie chart on the figure below. Be sure to label all information. You may use your ruler to draw the chart.

 

 

 

 

Scoring Guide

 

Score & Description

Complete

The response correctly charts the percentage of rainfall of the 4 seasons on the circle and correctly labels the segments.

Partial

The response correctly charts the percentage of rainfall of 1-3 seasons or it divides the chart up correctly but does not label by season or labels by inches only. Also correct: "% only" in correct drawing of seasons.

Inappropriate

The response does not properly chart any of the information. It fails to divide the pie into pieces corresponding to the information from the table and it does not correctly label any piece of the chart.

 

Question 82 refers to Atlas [2]                                               

82.    Open the atlas to the world map showing land use on page 14.

Which of the following continents has the most manufacturing and trade?

 

A.     Australia

B.     Europe

C.     Africa

D.     South America

 

Key

 B

Question 83 refers to Atlas [2]                                               

83.    If you wanted to find out which page in the atlas had a map that showed the city of Dakar, where would you look?

A.     The World Map Projections pages

B.     The Index

C.     The World Facts page

D.     The Earth Notes page

 

Key

 B

Question 84 refers to Atlas [2]                                               

The following question is based on the maps of Africa on pages 60-63 of the atlas.

 

84.    Look at the physical map of Africa on page 60. Which region in Africa has the highest elevation?

A.     Northern coast

B.     Western coast

C.     Southwestern

D.     Eastern

 

Key

 D

Question 85 refers to Atlas [2]                                               

The following question is based on the maps of Africa on pages 60-63 of the atlas.

 

85.    Look at the political map of Africa on page 61. Of the following four cities in southern Africa, which is a national capital?

A.     Luanda, Angola

B.     Durban, South Africa

C.     Kananga, Zaire

D.     Bulawayo, Zimbabwe

 

Key

 A

Question 86 refers to Atlas [2]                                               

The following question is based on the maps of Africa on pages 60-63 of the atlas.

 

86.    Look first at the political map of Africa on page 61, and then look at the population map on page 63. Which country in West Africa is the most densely populated?

A.     Liberia

B.     Mauritania

C.     Mali

D.     Nigeria

 

Key

 D

Question 87 refers to Atlas [2]                                               

87.    Look at the map on the top of page 65. What is a reason why the countries surrounding the Persian Gulf are important to many other countries in the world?

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

 

Scoring Guide

 

Score & Description

Complete

The response mentions that the countries surrounding the Persian Gulf region are important because of the number of oil fields located there.

Inappropriate

The response does not identify any reasons why the Persian Gulf is important to the rest of the world.

 

Acceptable: petroleum, fossil fuel, oil, crude

Not acceptable: gasoline, oil spill, OPEC, or inaccurate responses such as

 

 "so the ships know where to take the oil"

 

Question 88 refers to Atlas [2]                                               

88.    Look at the population and landscape map of China on page 72 of the atlas.

What area of the country is densely populated (crowded)?

 

 

__________________________________________________________________

 

__________________________________________________________________

 

Give two reasons why this area of the country is densely populated.

 

 

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

 

Scoring Guide

 

Score & Description

Complete

The response correctly identifies an area of population concentration (the east coastal area or Sichuan Basin). It explains this by drawing on  two of the explanations given in the list below or gives some other appropriate response.

Essential

The response correctly identifies an area of population concentration (east coastal area or Sichuan Basin). It explains this by stating one of the explanations given in the list below or gives some other appropriate response.

Partial

The response correctly identifies an area of population concentration, but does not correctly explain why the population is concentrated there.

Inappropriate

The response does not correctly identify an area of population concentration, and does not explain the population is concentrated in certain areas.

 

Acceptable areas of population concentration include:

 East coastal area

 Southeastern area

 Sichuan Basin

 Names of specific cities

 

Reasons for population concentration:

 

 Coastal areas have flat land, suitable for building and agriculture.

 The coastal area allows trade with other countries.

 The area has a lot of business, industry and manufacturing.

 Oceans and rivers are important to settlement (if they specify a reason such as transportation, agriculture, household use, industry or fishing).

 Much of China is mountainous or desert and is not suitable to settlement.

 Government administrative center; capital (also major cities)

 

Question 89 refers to Atlas [2]                                               

89.    Look at the three maps of Canada on pages 38 and 39 of the atlas. Give two reasons why the major highways are mostly in the southern part of the country.

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

 

Scoring Guide

 

Score & Description

Complete

The response gives two correct reasons. These may be drawn from the list given or include some other appropriate response.

Partial

The response gives one correct reason. The second reason, if present, is incorrect or trivial. For example, "people in the North cannot drive."

Inappropriate

The response does not identify any correct reasons for the concentration of highways in the south.

 

Credited responses could include:

 The population is concentrated in the South.

 Most economic activity is in the South (may mention industry, agriculture, forestry, livestock, business, ranching) OR there is little or no commercial activity in the north

 Climatic conditions make the north less conducive to habitation OR it is warmer in the south

 Proximity to the United States border

 They link major cities.

 The South is where the major cities are located.

All responses must be based on the map information.

Question 90 refers to Atlas [2]                                               

90.    Look at the world map on pages 6 and 7 of the atlas. What two units of measurement are used on this map to show distance?

A.     Feet and meters

B.     Miles and kilometers

C.     Square miles and square kilometers

D.     Inches and millimeters

 

Key

 B

Question 91 refers to Atlas [2]                                               

91.    Look at the maps of South America on page 48 of the atlas. Which area of South America gets over 80 inches of rainfall each year?

 

__________________________________________________________________

 

__________________________________________________________________

 

__________________________________________________________________

 

What is the natural vegetation of this area?

 

 

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

 

Scoring Guide

 

Score & Description

Complete

The response correctly identifies one of the areas shown below. lt notes that tropical rain forests or rain forests grow in this area. If rain forest (tropical rain forest) is given as the answer to the first part of the question, the second part should contain a description such as trees and shrubs.

Partial

The response correctly identifies the location of the rainiest area or describes the vegetation, but does not do both.

Inappropriate

The response does not correctly identify the rainiest area as the northwest through central. It does not note that tropical rain forests grow in this area.

 

Credited Responses:

 area in the north, northwest, northeast, southern Andes region, equator, Amazon basin, Amazon rain forest, or the rain forest region as the rainiest area

�� Peru, Ecuador, Columbia, Venezuela, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile

 purple area

 southwest (Chile)

 

NOTE: If the first response is the southwest or Chile, then the type of natural vegetation should be mixed forest, mediterranean or high mountain.

 

Accept trees, shrubs and plant as the vegetation ONLY if the area is designated as tropical rain forest or rain forest.

 

Question 92 refers to Atlas [2]                                               

92.    Look at the cross section of South America on page 49 of the atlas. Which of the following is the highest?

A.     Lake Titicaca

B.     Gran Chaco

C.     Parana River

D.     Brazilian Highlands

 

Key

 A

Question 93 refers to Atlas [2]                                               

93.    Look at the bar graph on page 31. The graph shows United States energy production and consumption.

Using this graph, compare the United States consumption (use) of oil with its production of oil.

 

 

__________________________________________________________________

 

__________________________________________________________________

 

__________________________________________________________________

 

Name one problem that this can cause for the United States.

 

 

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

 

Scoring Guide

 

Score & Description

Complete

The response correctly explains that the United States consumes more oil than it produces. It may mention that the United States produces 17-18 quadrillion BTUs but consumes 33-34 quadrillion BTUs. It also explains that this can lead to a problem, such as those listed.

Acceptable answers for production range between 15-20 and acceptable answers for consumption range between 30-35. Answers outside this range can not be scored a "Complete".

 

Partial

The response correctly explains that the United States consumes more oil than it produces, or it identifies a problem such as those given,  but it does not do both.

Inappropriate

The response does not explain that the United States uses more oil than it produces. It does not explain that this may cause a problem such as those listed.

 

Credited Responses for the comparison

 actual numbers

 a difference that is between 10 and 20 quadrillion BTUs

    (eg., We use 17 quadrillion BTUS more than we produce.)

 higher, more, or greater when it is clear whether it is consumption or production (eg., We use more.)

 

Credited Responses for the problem include:

 

 Shortages

 We’ll run out

 We need to buy it or import it

 Lack of energy or lack of heat

 

 Dependence on foreign countries

 have to buy oil from other countries

 

��� Trade imbalance

��� High cost of energy

 

Unacceptable Reasons for the problem

 

 We don’t have a lot of oil

 Could lose money

 "We use way too much" or responses that indicate a dependence on oil in general, not due to producing less than we consume

 "It is higher" or responses which compare two numbers without clarifying the meaning such as "35 to 18"

 loss of oil

 taxes can go higher

 

Question 94 refers to Atlas [2]                                               

The following question is about the map on pages 8 and 9 of the atlas.

 

94.    Which of these four countries is crossed by the equator?

A.     Bolivia

B.     Australia

C.     India

D.     Indonesia

 

Key

 D

Question 95 refers to Atlas [2]                                               

95.    Which of these four countries is the furthest south?

A.     South Africa

B.     Uruguay

C.     New Zealand

D.     Zaire

 

Key

 C