Civics Pretest : Grade 8 Sample questions and answers

Civics: Grade 8   Sample questions and answers

 

Define Civic Life, Politics, Government (7)Foundations of American System (25)Govt Embodiment Amer Democracy (19)US Relationship to Other Nations (10)Roles of Citizens (14)

 

Multiple Choice (61)Short Constructed Response (12)Extended Constructed Response (2)

 

The following question refers to the photograph below of the 1963 March on Washington.

 

                                                                                                            Bruce Davidson/Magnum Photos

 

 

 

1.   Which constitutional right are the people in the photograph exercising?

A.     The right to privacy

B.     The right to a fair trial

C.     The right to freedom of religion

D.     The right to freedom of assembly

 

Key

 D

The following question refers to the photograph below of the 1963 March on Washington.

 

                                                                                                             Bruce Davidson/Magnum Photos

 

 

 

2.   Protests such as the one shown in the photograph are protected by United

States law because the protestors are

A.     over 21 years of age

B.     behaving peacefully

C.     not calling for major changes in the American system

D.     both men and women

 

Key

 B

The following question refers to the photograph below of the 1963 March on Washington.

 

                                                                                                            Bruce Davidson/Magnum Photos

 

 

 

3.   What are two specific ways in which marches and demonstrations such as the

one illustrated can achieve political goals?

1)

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

2)

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

 

Scoring Guide

 

Score & Description

COMPLETE

Response gives two valid ways such events can achieve political goals.

PARTIAL

Response gives one valid way such events can achieve political goals.

UNACCEPTABLE

Response gives no specific ways such events can achieve political goals.

 

The following question refers to the passage below from the Declaration of Independence.

     We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal,

that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights,

that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. That to secure

these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just

powers from the consent of the governed, that whenever any Form of

Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to

alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation

on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall

seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness.

 

 

 

4.   According to the passage, the most important purpose of government is to

protect

A.     people from harm

B.     the church

C.     the truth

D.     people’s rights

 

Key

 D

The following question refers to the passage below from the Declaration of Independence.

     We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal,

that they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable Rights,

that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. That to secure

these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just

powers from the consent of the governed, that whenever any Form of

Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to

alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation

on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall

seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness.

 

 

 

5.   Which statement best summarizes the main point being made in the passage?

A.     The people should be in control of their own government.

B.     The church should help governments determine what is right.

C.     The main function of government is to keep people happy.

D.     Governments need to be changed regularly to keep them from

becoming unjust.

 

Key

 A

The following question refers to the passage below from the Declaration of Independence.

     We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal,

that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights,

that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. That to secure

these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just

powers from the consent of the governed, that whenever any Form of

Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to

alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation

on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall

seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness.

 

 

 

6.   The Declaration of Independence was written to

A.     appeal to other countries for help in fighting Great Britain

B.     convince Great Britain to repeal the Stamp Act

C.     make laws for a new form of government

D.     explain why the colonies were breaking away from Great Britain

 

Key

 D

The following question refers to the passage below from the Declaration of Independence.

     We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal,

that they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable Rights,

that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. That to secure

these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just

powers from the consent of the governed, that whenever any Form of

Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to

alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation

on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall

seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness.

 

 

 

7.   According to the passage, which is more important, the individual or the

government? Fill in the oval next to your choice. Then give two reasons,

based on the words from the Declaration of Independence, to support your

answer.

 

 

1)

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

2)

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

 

Scoring Guide

 

Score & Description

COMPLETE

Response gives the correct answer (the individual) and gives two valid reasons that are based on the text.

OR

The student has forgotten to fill in the correct oval, but the student’s reasons/answers in the second part of the question make it clear that they understand the individual is more important.

ACCEPTABLE

The response gives the correct answer, the individual, and only one valid reason.

OR

The student has forgotten to fill in the correct oval, but the student’s one reason/answer in the second part of the question makes it clear that they understand the individual is more important.

PARTIAL

The response gives the correct answer (the individual) but no reason is given, reasons are vague/inaccurate.

UNACCEPTABLE

The response does not give correct answer (the individual) or reasons.

OR

The response contradicts the reasons.

 

The following question refers to the diagrams below.

 

 

 

8.   Government X is different from Government Y in that in Government X the

A.     executive and legislative branches are separate

B.     executive, legislative, and judicial branches are all elected

C.     executive branch has little real power

D.     authority of the judicial branch is greater than that of the legislature

 

Key

 A

The following question refers to the diagrams below.

 

 

 

9.   The diagrams represent two common forms of government. The form of

government in Government Y is usually called

A.     aristocratic

B.     parliamentary

C.     authoritarian

D.     federal

 

Key

 B

10.    In the United States, taxes are NOT used for

A.     building churches

B.     funding public libraries

C.     building roads

D.     taking care of parks

 

Key

 A

11.    If you and other people in your community believe strongly that the United

States should change its position on a conflict with another country, whom

should you contact?

A.     That country’s ambassador to the United States

B.     The United Nations

C.     Your senators and congressional representative

D.     The governor of your state

 

Key

 C

The following question is based on the situation described below.

     Teresia is a small country that has been invaded by its neighbor Corollia. The

king of Teresia is a long-standing United States ally who has been living in exile

since the Corollian invasion. Teresia is an important exporter of uranium; it

sends most of its supply to members of the European Union. The king appeals to

the United States and the United Nations for military help in driving Corollia

from his country.

 

 

 

12.    What official argument would members of the United Nations be most likely

to make for supporting military efforts against Corollia?

A.     The stability of the international system depends on countries

maintaining their current forms of government.

B.     The United Nations and the European Union should control the mining of

uranium worldwide.

C.     The stability of the international system depends on absolute respect for

national borders and sovereignty.

D.     Countries such as the United States should become the main judges in all

international disputes.

 

Key

 C

The following question is based on the situation described below.

     Teresia is a small country that has been invaded by its neighbor Corollia. The

king of Teresia is a long-standing United States ally who has been living in exile

since the Corollian invasion. Teresia is an important exporter of uranium; it

sends most of its supply to members of the European Union. The king appeals to

the United States and the United Nations for military help in driving Corollia

from his country.

 

 

 

13.    Identify two pieces of information NOT given above that you would need

before you could decide whether or not the United States military should help

Teresia. Explain why each piece of information would be important.

1)

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

2)

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

 

Scoring Guide

 

Score & Description

COMPLETE

Response gives two plausible pieces of information and explains why each one would be important.

ACCEPTABLE

Response gives one or two pieces of information and one explanation.

PARTIAL

Response gives one or two plausible pieces of information without explaining why either one is important

OR

response gives vague or incomplete explanations.

UNACCEPTABLE

Response does not give any plausible pieces of information or explanations.

 

The following question refers to the cartoon below.

                                                                                       Copyright ® 1987 Tribune Media Services, Inc. All rights reserved. Reprinted by permission.

 

 

 

14.    What is the main point of the cartoon?

A.     The United States government should lend more money to poorer

countries.

B.     The United States military should protect poorer countries.

C.     Domestic and foreign policy are related.

D.     Citizens are well informed about political issues.

 

Key

 C

The following question refers to the passage below.

Over recent years the National Rifle Association (NRA) has played an important

role in politics. It has a large number of members, whose voting strength tends to

impress legislators. It holds regular meetings with members of Congress and federal

bureaucrats. It gives campaign contributions to candidates who oppose gun control

and spends money directly to oppose gun control supporters.

 

 

 

15.    The meetings with legislators and bureaucrats described in the passage are

known as

A.     lobbying

B.     vetoing

C.     filibustering

D.     gerrymandering

 

Key

 A

The following question refers to the passage below.

Over recent years the National Rifle Association (NRA) has played an important

role in politics. It has a large number of members, whose voting strength tends to

impress legislators. It holds regular meetings with members of Congress and federal

bureaucrats. It gives campaign contributions to candidates who oppose gun control

and spends money directly to oppose gun control supporters.

 

 

 

16.    Which of the following would the National Rifle Association (NRA) probably

cite in support of its position on gun control?

A.     The Declaration of Independence

B.     The Preamble to the Constitution

C.     The First Amendment to the Constitution

D.     The Second Amendment to the Constitution

 

Key

 D

17.    Franklin D. Roosevelt won four presidential elections between 1932 and 1944.

Why could he not have won four elections today?

 

 

A.     The Constitution has been amended to prevent people over the age of 70

from serving as President.

B.     The Constitution has been amended to prevent people from being elected

to more than two terms as President.

C.     Roosevelt’s political party no longer exists.

D.     The electoral college system makes it difficult for candidates to serve

more than two terms as President.

 

Key

 B

18.    Which of the following does the national (federal) government of the United

States do that state and local governments do not?

A.     Run public schools

B.     Print money

C.     Remove state governors from office

D.     Choose members of city councils

 

Key

 B

19.    The Constitution requires that the President’s nominations to the Supreme

Court be approved by the Senate. This is an example of

A.     legislative supremacy

B.     federalism

C.     checks and balances

D.     judicial review

 

Key

 C

The following question refers to the cartoon below.

Editorial cartoon by Pat Oliphant. Copyright © Universal Press Syndicate.

Used by permission. All rights reserved.

 

 

20.    The main point made in the cartoon is that

A.     the opposing sides in the gun control debate will have trouble

compromising

B.     citizens have the right to own as many guns as they want

C.     the Supreme Court has resolved the debate about the right to own guns

D.     most Americans cannot decide whether to support controls on gun

ownership

 

Key

 A

The following question refers to the cartoon below.

Editorial cartoon by Pat Oliphant. Copyright © Universal Press Syndicate.

Used by permission. All rights reserved.

 

 

21.    The cartoon shows conflicting views about the balance between

A.     the power of government and the responsibilities of citizens

B.     ideals and practical goals

C.     individual rights and the public good

D.     liberty and equality

 

Key

 C

The following question refers to the cartoon below.

Editorial cartoon by Pat Oliphant. Copyright © Universal Press Syndicate.

Used by permission. All rights reserved.

 

 

22.    In the appropriate spaces below, give one argument in favor of each of the two

positions shown in the cartoon.

"Demands for Gun Controls"

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

"No Gun Controls—Not Ever!"

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

 

Scoring Guide

 

Score & Description

COMPLETE

Response gives a valid argument in favor of each position.

PARTIAL

Response gives a valid argument in favor of one of the positions.

UNACCEPTABLE

Response does not give valid arguments for either position

OR

response simply restates each position

OR

response gives valid argument(s), but puts them in the wrong place (i.e., gun control arguments in the "no gun controls" space and arguments against gun controls in the "demands for gun controls" space).

 

The following question refers to the summons below.

 

 

 

23.    The summons would most likely be sent to someone

A.     accused of a crime

B.     asked to give evidence in a trial

C.     called to jury duty

D.     asked to serve as a lawyer in a trial

 

Key

 C

The following question refers to the summons below.

 

 

 

24.    The person who received the summons was most likely chosen

A.     by a panel of judges

B.     because she volunteered

C.     because she witnessed a crime

D.     randomly from a list of registered voters

 

Key

 D

The following question refers to the summons below.

 

 

 

25.    Which of the following is the best reason why people should serve on juries

when they are called?

A.     People who are on juries earn a lot of money for the services they give the

court.

B.     People can protect their right to a trial by jury only if citizens are willing

to be on juries.

C.     People on juries have a lot of opportunities to express their political

opinions.

D.     Our system of justice only works if people with a lot of legal experience

are on juries.

 

Key

 B

26.    In the Gettysburg Address, President Abraham Lincoln described the United

States government as "government of the people, by the people, for the

people." Think about the three different parts of Lincoln’s description, and

EXPLAIN in your own words what he meant by "of the people, by the people,

for the people."

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

 

Scoring Guide

 

Score & Description

COMPLETE

Response shows a good understanding of Lincoln’s description by offering a reasonable explanation for two or three phrases in the quotation

OR

response shows a good understanding by offering a reasonable explanation for the quotation as a whole and identifying two or three of its major themes.

PARTIAL

Response shows some understanding of Lincoln’s description by offering a reasonable explanation for any single phrase

OR

response shows some understanding by giving a vague or incomplete explanation for the quotation as a whole.

UNACCEPTABLE

Response shows little or no understanding of Lincoln’s description (e.g., "It means the government is made up of people")

OR

response merely paraphrases Lincoln.

 

27.    Which of the following is an example of people using power without having

the right to do so?

A.     The owner of a newspaper prints her own opinions in the newspaper.

B.     A governor vetoes a bill passed by the state legislature.

C.     A group of people against nuclear power march outside a nuclear power

plant.

D.     A police officer arrests someone because the person looks suspicious.

 

Key

 D

The following question refers to the situation below.

     In your town, some of the citizens want to remove certain books from the

public library because they think the books contain material that is harmful

for children to read. Other citizens in the town want to keep the books in the

library.

 

 

 

28.    What argument could be used to defend the opinion that the books should be

kept in the library?

A.     Democracy depends on the free expression of many different opinions.

B.     Democracy depends on allowing communities to vote on what can be

read.

C.     Democracy depends on the smartest people deciding what books should be

read.

D.     Democracy depends on limiting access to books.

 

Key

 A

The following question refers to the situation below.

     In your town, some of the citizens want to remove certain books from the

public library because they think the books contain material that is harmful

for children to read. Other citizens in the town want to keep the books in the

library.

 

 

 

29.    Which of the following is the most democratic and effective way to keep the

books in the library?

A.     Put the books on the higher shelves of the library so only the adults can

reach them.

B.     Have the library staff decide which books to keep and which books to

eliminate.

C.     Start a petition to the mayor to show that people in the town support

keeping the books in the library.

D.     Make the people who want to keep the books pay a special fee to keep

them separate from the other books.

 

Key

 C

30.    Which of the following is a problem that could NOT be solved by one nation

alone?

A.     National debt

B.     Government corruption

C.     Highway traffic

D.     Ocean pollution

 

Key

 D

31.    Sometimes the common good conflicts with individual rights. Which of the

following is an example of this?

A.     A person is put in jail because she is guilty of a violent crime.

B.     A person must move out of his house so that a highway can be built.

C.     Schools are closed because of icy roads.

D.     A community organizes to clean up a vacant lot.

 

Key

 B

The following question refers to the situation below.

     Amanda and her friends have noticed these two problems in their

neighborhood.

 

        Problem 1:  The garbage cans in the public park are overflowing.

 

        Problem 2:  Many younger children have trouble crossing the busy

                          streets on their way home from school.

 

 

 

32.    What is one thing Amanda and her friends could do on their own to help

solve Problem 1?

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

What is one thing Amanda and her friends could do on their own to help

solve Problem 2?

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

 

Scoring Guide

 

Score & Description

COMPLETE

Response offers a reasonable solution to both problems 1 and 2. Reasonable solutions can be either "do it yourself" activities like helping to recycle, or using civic skills to involve the proper governmental authorities, like calling the mayor.

PARTIAL

Response offers a reasonable solution to problem 1 or problem 2.

UNACCEPTABLE

Response does not suggest reasonable things that Amanda and her friends could do to solve either problem (e.g., "They could arrest people for littering"; "They could rent a school bus to drive kids home").

 

The following question refers to the situation below.

     Amanda and her friends have noticed these two problems in their

neighborhood.

 

        Problem 1:  The garbage cans in the public park are overflowing.

 

        Problem 2:  Many younger children have trouble crossing the busy

                          streets on their way home from school.

 

 

 

33.    Tell one thing local government could do to help solve Problem 1.

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

Tell one thing local government could do to help solve Problem 2.

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

 

Scoring Guide

 

Score & Description

COMPLETE

Response indicates a plausible long-term government solution to both Problem 1 and Problem 2.

PARTIAL

Response indicates a plausible long-term government solution to Problem 1 or Problem 2.

UNACCEPTABLE

Response does not offer plausible things that local government could do to solve either problem (e.g., "Make it illegal to throw away garbage outside"; "make parents or teachers walk all young children home from school").

 

The following question refers to the poster below, which is from the Second World War.

 

 

 

34.    What is the poster primarily trying to get people to do?

A.     Attend religious services

B.     Pray for American success in the war

C.     Join the army

D.     Lend the government money to help it fight the war

 

Key

 D

The following question refers to the poster below, which is from the Second World War.

 

 

                                                                      

 

35.    One message of the poster is that

A.     freedom of religion is more important to older Americans than to others

B.     America’s enemies in the war threaten religious freedom

C.     Americans should give money to the government instead of fighting in the

war

D.     Americans should oppose the war because fighting harms religious

freedom

 

Key

 B

The following question refers to the poster below, which is from the Second World War.

 

 

                                                                      

 

36.    The freedom that is the subject of the poster is protected by the

A.     Articles of Confederation

B.     Declaration of Independence

C.     Bill of Rights

D.     Pledge of Allegiance

 

Key

 C

37.    A central purpose of the United Nations is to

A.     establish democratic governments worldwide

B.     maintain international peace and security

C.     decide where national boundaries lie

D.     bring international criminals to justice

 

Key

 B

38.    What do all constitutional governments have?

A.     Legal limits on political power

B.     A President as the head of government

C.     A bill of rights

D.     Separation of church and state

 

Key

 A

The following question refers to the cartoon below.

 

 

39.    Which best summarizes the message of the cartoon?

A.     Cooperating on scientific projects is the best way for countries to settle their differences.

B.     Astronauts should be more concerned about problems on Earth.

C.     Human beings are much more advanced in science than in their ability to get along.

D.     The use of force is an old but effective way for countries to deal with each other.

 

Key

 C

The following question refers to the cartoon below.

 

 

40.    Which action would the cartoonist be most likely to support?

A.     Strengthening the World Court’s ability to resolve conflicts

B.     Expanding the North Atlantic Treaty Organization’s policing role

C.     Improving missile defense systems to protect against nuclear attack

D.     Supplying weapons to unarmed nations so that they can defend themselves

 

Key

 A

41.    Most countries have a constitution. Give two reasons why it can be useful for a country to have a constitution.

 

1.

__________________________________________________________________

 

__________________________________________________________________

 

__________________________________________________________________

 

2.

__________________________________________________________________

 

__________________________________________________________________

 

__________________________________________________________________

 

 

 

Scoring Guide

 

Score & Description

Complete

Response gives two reasons why it is useful for a country to have a constitution.

Partial

Response gives one reason why it is useful for a country to have a constitution.

Unacceptable

Response fails to give a reason why it is useful for a country to have a constitution.

 

Credited responses could include:

1. A constitution sets forth the purposes of government.

 

2. A constitution describes the way a government is organized and how power is allocated ("how a government works").

 

3. A constitution defines the relationship between the people and their government.

 

4. A constitution limits the power of government.

 

5. A constitution provides political stability and allows for orderly change of leadership and law.

 

6. A constitution provides information and helps educate people about the principles and structures of government and about their rights. A constitution protects peoples’ rights (natural rights accepted as well).

 

7. A constitution provides rules and laws that tell how a government is organized and runs.

 

8. Specific examples of rights guaranteed under the U.S. Constitution, provided they are accompanied by a specific reason for a constitution.

 

9. Can be useful to settle legal arguments in court.

 

10. Unites a country to form a more cohesive or powerful nation.

 

Do not accept:

 

– So we won’t have a dictatorship (dictatorial governments can also have constitutions).

 

– To keep things/people under control (police states can also keep "things" under control).

 

– To prevent wars with other countries.

 

The following question refers to the bar graph below.

 

 

42.    The graph shows that

A.     wealthy people tend to have different political views than do people with less money

B.     the incomes of certain groups of voters have increased dramatically

C.     the higher someone’s income is, the more likely he or she is to vote

D.     young people are more likely to vote than are older people

 

Key

 C

The following question refers to the bar graph below.

 

 

43.    Give one explanation for the pattern of voter turnout shown in the graph.

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

 

Scoring Guide

 

Score & Description

Complete

Response gives one valid reason for the pattern shown.

Partial

Response attempts to give a reason, but it is vague or weak ("People with more money get more out of voting"; "Poorer people aren’t as interested in politics").

 

 

 

OR

 

Response gives a circular argument pertaining to the graph (e.g., "Wealthy people are more involved so they vote more").

 

 

 

OR

 

"Wealthy people care more about politics/society, so they vote more."

 

 

 

OR

 

"Wealthy people vote more because they are more affected by tax consequences" (needs to be well explained, not simply "wealthy people are taxed more").

 

Unacceptable

Response gives no valid reason for the pattern shown.

 

 

OR

Response merely describes the pattern in the graph.

 

 

OR

Response gives a plausible reason for an incorrect reading of the chart.

 

Credited responses could include:

(Note: The graph shows that voter participation increases as income increases.)

 

– Higher-income people generally have more education and so are more likely to focus on political participation/recognize its importance.

 

– Higher-income people may feel more confidence in the political system because they have been more successful.

 

– Higher-income people may think they have more at stake in the system.

 

– Lower-income people may think that politicians don’t really care about them.

 

– Lower-income people may think their votes don’t matter.

 

– Younger people, who tend to have lower incomes than older people, are not as involved in the political system and vote at lower rates than older people.

 

Do not accept:

 

– Lower income people have less time to get out and vote (no credit since not valid—time would apply equally to both groups).

 

The following question refers to the passage below.

When two [people] come into [the Supreme] Court, one may say: "an act of Congress means this." The other may say it means the opposite. We [the Court] then say it means one of the two or something else in between. In that way we  are making the law, aren’t we?

 

           — Earl Warren, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court

 

 

44.    The function of the Court that Chief Justice Warren described is called

A.     judicial restraint

B.     advise and consent

C.     judicial review

D.     impeachment

 

Key

 C

The following question refers to the passage below.

When two [people] come into [the Supreme] Court, one may say: "an act of Congress means this." The other may say it means the opposite. We [the Court] then say it means one of the two or something else in between. In that way we  are making the law, aren’t we?

 

           — Earl Warren, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court

 

 

45.    Some people are troubled by the role of the Court described by Chief Justice Warren. Which argument could they effectively use against it?

A.     It is dangerous to give nonelected officials such as judges so much power in the government.

B.     The Supreme Court makes it too difficult for the federal government to exercise its power over the states.

C.     Supreme Court judges are the members of society most capable of making decisions about social policy.

D.     The main task of the Supreme Court is to rewrite the Constitution to respond to modern problems.

 

Key

 A

Look carefully at the cartoon below. The space aliens just said, "Take us to your leader."

 

 

46.    What does the cartoon say about how American government is organized?

 

__________________________________________________________________

 

__________________________________________________________________

 

__________________________________________________________________

 

__________________________________________________________________

Now explain why American government is organized this way.

 

__________________________________________________________________

 

__________________________________________________________________

 

__________________________________________________________________

 

__________________________________________________________________

 

 

 

Scoring Guide

 

Score & Description

Complete

Response gives a plausible reading of the cartoon, and offers a good explanation.

Partial

Response accurately describes the cartoon, but does not offer a correct explanation for why government is like this (e.g., "It is saying there are many leaders at different levels of government.").

 

 

 

OR

 

Response gives incomplete answers to both parts of the question (e.g., "The cartoon is saying there are a lot of leaders." "The government is organized that way because it’s better for the people.").

 

 

 

OR

 

Response gives a good explanation even though the description of the cartoon is incorrect.

 

Unacceptable

Response does not give any plausible reading of the cartoon.

 

Credited responses could include:

Part I:

 

– There are many leaders at different levels of government.

 

– There are too many leaders in the government.

 

– Government is too confusing.

 

– The government is organized in different levels (acceptable descriptors: "levels of authority or power") or organized in different categories.

 

Part II:

 

– Division of powers keeps each part of the government from being too strong (also accept the term "checks and balances"). Subdivided powers are acceptable, if good explanation or examples are also provided.

 

– People are protected from being controlled by just one leader.

 

– People have their rights protected by the existence of more than one level of government.

 

– American government has many leaders, because some kinds of problems affect only people close to home, while other problems affect everyone in the nation. So different levels of government are needed to deal with the problems that happen at different levels.

 

– Problems can be solved more easily. Problems can be dealt with "quicker."

 

– American government has many levels, because people in the states have different ideas, sometimes from people in the national government. This way, people in the states can have their needs represented.

 

– Having different levels makes government more accessible.

 

Do not accept:

 

Part I – levels of justice or divided into sections or different parts

 

Part II – organized for more control (must be "so the people have more control over the government" or "to give people political rights")

 

Notes:

 

1. If the answer to Part I is vague (e.g., "There are a lot of leaders.") or sarcastic, then Part II must provide enough information to show that the student understands what the levels are, or that the leaders are at different levels of government in order for Part I to receive credit.

 

2. Students can answer part I in part II (bottom portion) and receive credit.

 

The following question refers to the Bill of Rights of the United States Constitution below. You may refer to the Bill of Rights as you answer the questions, but you do not need to read it before you read the questions.

AMENDMENT 1.  RELIGION, SPEECH, ASSEMBLY, PETITION

 

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.

 

AMENDMENT 2.  RIGHT TO BEAR ARMS

 

A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.

 

AMENDMENT 3.  QUARTERING OF SOLDIERS

 

No Soldier shall in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.

 

AMENDMENT 4.  SEARCHES AND SEIZURES

 

The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.

 

AMENDMENT 5.  GRAND JURIES, DOUBLE JEOPARDY, SELF-INCRIMINATION, DUE PROCESS, EMINENT DOMAIN

 

No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.

 

AMENDMENT 6.  CRIMINAL COURT PROCEDURES

 

In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance of counsel for his defense.

 

AMENDMENT 7.  TRIAL BY JURY IN COMMON-LAW CASES

 

In Suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise re-examined in any Court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.

 

AMENDMENT 8.  BAILS, FINES, AND PUNISHMENT

 

Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.

 

AMENDMENT 9.  RIGHTS RETAINED BY THE PEOPLE

 

The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.

 

AMENDMENT 10.  RIGHTS RESERVED TO THE STATES

 

The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.

 

 

47.    As a whole, the Bill of Rights mostly addresses the rights of

A.     states

B.     individuals

C.     cities

D.     public officials

 

Key

 B

The following question refers to the Bill of Rights of the United States Constitution below. You may refer to the Bill of Rights as you answer the questions, but you do not need to read it before you read the questions.

AMENDMENT 1.  RELIGION, SPEECH, ASSEMBLY, PETITION

 

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.

 

AMENDMENT 2.  RIGHT TO BEAR ARMS

 

A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.

 

AMENDMENT 3.  QUARTERING OF SOLDIERS

 

No Soldier shall in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.

 

AMENDMENT 4.  SEARCHES AND SEIZURES

 

The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.

 

AMENDMENT 5.  GRAND JURIES, DOUBLE JEOPARDY, SELF-INCRIMINATION, DUE PROCESS, EMINENT DOMAIN

 

No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.

 

AMENDMENT 6.  CRIMINAL COURT PROCEDURES

 

In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance of counsel for his defense.

 

AMENDMENT 7.  TRIAL BY JURY IN COMMON-LAW CASES

 

In Suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise re-examined in any Court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.

 

AMENDMENT 8.  BAILS, FINES, AND PUNISHMENT

 

Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.

 

AMENDMENT 9.  RIGHTS RETAINED BY THE PEOPLE

 

The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.

 

AMENDMENT 10.  RIGHTS RESERVED TO THE STATES

 

The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.

 

 

48.    Which of the following is true because of the Fourth Amendment?

A.     There are legal limits on the power of police to enter your home.

B.     You have the right to speak to a lawyer before answering police questions.

C.     Police must be certain a crime has been committed before getting a search warrant.

D.     You may never be tried for the same crime twice.

 

Key

 A

The following question refers to the Bill of Rights of the United States Constitution below. You may refer to the Bill of Rights as you answer the questions, but you do not need to read it before you read the questions.

AMENDMENT 1.  RELIGION, SPEECH, ASSEMBLY, PETITION

 

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.

 

AMENDMENT 2.  RIGHT TO BEAR ARMS

 

A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.

 

AMENDMENT 3.  QUARTERING OF SOLDIERS

 

No Soldier shall in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.

 

AMENDMENT 4.  SEARCHES AND SEIZURES

 

The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.

 

AMENDMENT 5.  GRAND JURIES, DOUBLE JEOPARDY, SELF-INCRIMINATION, DUE PROCESS, EMINENT DOMAIN

 

No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.

 

AMENDMENT 6.  CRIMINAL COURT PROCEDURES

 

In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance of counsel for his defense.

 

AMENDMENT 7.  TRIAL BY JURY IN COMMON-LAW CASES

 

In Suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise re-examined in any Court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.

 

AMENDMENT 8.  BAILS, FINES, AND PUNISHMENT

 

Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.

 

AMENDMENT 9.  RIGHTS RETAINED BY THE PEOPLE

 

The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.

 

AMENDMENT 10.  RIGHTS RESERVED TO THE STATES

 

The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.

 

 

49.    According to the Bill of Rights, what is true about the rights described in the Constitution?

A.     People have no guaranteed rights other than those listed in the Bill of Rights.

B.     Rights not listed in the Bill of Rights are not recognized in the United States.

C.     The federal government, but not state governments, can interfere with the people’s rights.

D.     The fact that only some rights are listed does not mean that the people have no others.

 

Key

 D

The following question refers to the Bill of Rights of the United States Constitution below. You may refer to the Bill of Rights as you answer the questions, but you do not need to read it before you read the questions.

AMENDMENT 1.  RELIGION, SPEECH, ASSEMBLY, PETITION

 

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.

 

AMENDMENT 2.  RIGHT TO BEAR ARMS

 

A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.

 

AMENDMENT 3.  QUARTERING OF SOLDIERS

 

No Soldier shall in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.

 

AMENDMENT 4.  SEARCHES AND SEIZURES

 

The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.

 

AMENDMENT 5.  GRAND JURIES, DOUBLE JEOPARDY, SELF-INCRIMINATION, DUE PROCESS, EMINENT DOMAIN

 

No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.

 

AMENDMENT 6.  CRIMINAL COURT PROCEDURES

 

In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance of counsel for his defense.

 

AMENDMENT 7.  TRIAL BY JURY IN COMMON-LAW CASES

 

In Suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise re-examined in any Court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.

 

AMENDMENT 8.  BAILS, FINES, AND PUNISHMENT

 

Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.

 

AMENDMENT 9.  RIGHTS RETAINED BY THE PEOPLE

 

The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.

 

AMENDMENT 10.  RIGHTS RESERVED TO THE STATES

 

The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.

 

 

50.    Imagine that a person was convicted of stealing a candy bar and sentenced to 50 years in prison. He or she might challenge the sentence by citing the

A.     First Amendment

B.     Fifth Amendment

C.     Eighth Amendment

D.     Ninth Amendment

 

Key

 C

The following question laws. I would be the first to advocate obeying just laws. One has not only a legal but a moral responsibility to obey just laws. Conversely, one has a moral responsibility to disobey unjust laws. . . .

           — Martin Luther King, Jr., "Letter from Birmingham Jail," 1963

 

 

51.    According to Martin Luther King, Jr., which of the following would be considered an unjust law?

A.     A law that requires people to pay taxes

B.     A law that requires children to attend school

C.     A law that requires segregation of the races

D.     A law that punishes violent behavior

 

Key

 C

The following question laws. I would be the first to advocate obeying just laws. One has not only a legal but a moral responsibility to obey just laws. Conversely, one has a moral responsibility to disobey unjust laws. . . .

           — Martin Luther King, Jr., "Letter from Birmingham Jail," 1963

 

 

52.    What response to an unjust law is most consistent with the ideas of Martin Luther King, Jr.?

A.     Leaving the country rather than obeying the law

B.     Engaging the police in open battle

C.     Urging people to carry guns to protect themselves

D.     Taking part in peaceful demonstrations and boycotts

 

Key

 D

The following question laws. I would be the first to advocate obeying just laws. One has not only a legal but a moral responsibility to obey just laws. Conversely, one has a moral responsibility to disobey unjust laws. . . .

           — Martin Luther King, Jr., "Letter from Birmingham Jail," 1963

 

 

53.    Dr. King believed that "one has a moral responsibility to disobey unjust laws" through acts of civil disobedience.

Give one argument in support of Dr. King’s position.

 

__________________________________________________________________

 

__________________________________________________________________

 

__________________________________________________________________

 

__________________________________________________________________

 

 

Think of the possible negative consequences of people using civil disobedience to challenge the law. Give one example.

 

 

__________________________________________________________________

 

__________________________________________________________________

 

__________________________________________________________________

 

__________________________________________________________________

 

 

 

Scoring Guide

 

Score & Description

Complete

Response gives a reasonable argument in favor of Dr. King’s position and explains one possible negative consequence of opposing the law through civil disobedience.

Partial

Response gives an argument for Dr. King’s position.

 

 

OR

 

Response explains one possible negative consequence of opposing the law through civil disobedience.

 

 

 

OR

 

Response gives arguments for both parts of the question, but they are weak or incomplete (e.g., "Unjust laws are bad for society.").

 

Unacceptable

Response gives no valid arguments (e.g., "All laws are unjust.").

 

Credited responses could include:

In Support:

 

– If no one protests, the law will never change.

 

– Our first obligation is to our conscience. If something is wrong, we must oppose it. People must stand up for themselves.

 

– Some laws hurt or kill people or discriminate, and shouldn’t be obeyed.

 

– Disobeying the law may help change unjust laws by raising public awareness and influencing public opinion.

 

– Unjust laws make society corrupt and create social problems.

 

– Civil disobedience is a good way to oppose the law because protesters remain peaceful.

 

– Civil disobedience is a good way to oppose the law because protesters are willing to suffer the consequences for their beliefs.

 

Consequences of Civil Disobedience:

 

– If everyone makes laws for themselves, there will be chaos/anarchy.

 

– There are legal ways to change laws and we should follow these.

 

– People can’t just take the law into their own hands when they disagree with it.

 

– It could be dangerous to disobey laws. You could get in trouble or hurt.

 

DO NOT ACCEPT:

 

– Restatement of the issue or prompt (e.g., "I think people have the right/responsibility to disobey unjust laws.").

 

Note: Each part of the response must be written in the space appropriate to that part.

 

54.    Who is primarily responsible for carrying out United States foreign policy?

A.     The governors of the states

B.     The State Department

C.     The Supreme Court

D.     The Treasury Department

 

Key

 B

55.    Which of the following documents describes the powers of the President of the United States?

A.     The Declaration of Independence

B.     The Mayflower Compact

C.     The Constitution

D.     The Articles of Confederation

 

Key

 C

56.    The United States Congress can pass a bill even if the President disagrees with the bill because

A.     Congress must make sure that the needs of all citizens are met

B.     Congress can make laws more quickly when it does not have to involve the President

C.     Congress usually knows more about what the laws mean than the President does

D.     Congress is the primary legislative power of the government

 

Key

 D

Question 19 is based on the photograph below.

 

 

57.    What important feature of voting in United States elections is shown in the photograph?

A.     The secret ballot

B.     The open primary

C.     The right to campaign in polling places

D.     The right to vote for third-party candidates

 

Key

 A

 

 

58.    The posters above are from Richard Nixon’s campaign in 1972 and Jimmy Carter’s campaign in 1976. In what way are the two posters different?

A.     Nixon’s poster makes him look optimistic, while Carter’s makes him look pessimistic.

B.     Nixon’s poster emphasizes domestic policy concerns, while Carter’s poster emphasizes global issues.

C.     Nixon’s poster emphasizes his political experience, while Carter’s poster portrays him as a political outsider.

D.     Nixon’s poster emphasizes his ideas and outlook, while Carter’s poster emphasizes his preparation for the job.

 

Key

 C

59.    In addition to voting and being a candidate, what are two ways that citizens can be involved in presidential campaigns and elections?

1.

__________________________________________________________________

 

__________________________________________________________________

2.

__________________________________________________________________

 

__________________________________________________________________

 

 

 

Scoring Guide

 

Score & Description

Complete

Response identifies two opportunities for involvement.

Partial

Response identifies one opportunity for involvement.

Unacceptable

Response does not identify any opportunities for involvement.

 

Credited responses could include:

– Give money to candidates.

 

– Help raise money.

 

– Work in campaign (e.g., stuffing envelopes, making phone calls).

 

– Register voters.

 

– Volunteer at polling station (e.g., vote counter, challenger).

 

– Join interest groups.

 

– Join political party.

 

– Attend conventions, etc.

 

– Become informed about election issues.

 

– Discuss issues with others (e.g., talk to other people, "go on T.V. and say your thoughts").

 

– Persuade others to vote for your candidate.

 

– Support/sponsor a candidate (with elaboration).

 

Do Not Credit:

 

– Work for President.

 

– "Protest."

 

– Register to vote.

 

– Call the President.

 

– Write a letter (unless includes to whom and for what purpose).

 

Note: Students may give answers appropriate for themselves, including appropriate school and extracurricular activities, activities with parents, etc.

 

60.    Which would most likely be true in a totalitarian system?

A.     Citizens enjoy great personal freedom.

B.     Political parties compete actively in national elections.

C.     There are few checks on the powers of the ruler.

D.     Private organizations have great influence on government.

 

Key

 C

The following question refers to the cartoons below.

 

 

61.    The main point of the cartoons is that before the Fourteenth Amendment

A.     state governments were unable to respond to the needs of citizens

B.     big government could restrict the rights of the people

C.     federal powers were given to the states

D.     state governments did not have to follow the Bill of Rights

 

Key

 D

The following question refers to the cartoons below.

 

 

62.    One section of the Fourteenth Amendment is intended to guarantee that the government will not interfere with a person’s right to life, liberty, or property without following established rules. This section is known as the

A.     elastic clause

B.     due process clause

C.     habeas corpus clause

D.     indemnity clause

 

Key

 B

The following question refers to the cartoons below.

 

 

63.    Who was the Fourteenth Amendment designed to protect?

A.     Women

B.     Urban laborers

C.     Former slaves

D.     Entrepreneurs

 

Key

 C

The following question refers to the charts below, which give examples of areas where people volunteer and reasons why they volunteer.

 

 

64.    According to the charts, people are most likely to volunteer for organizations that

A.     focus on community affairs

B.     solve easy problems

C.     solve problems the government thinks are unimportant

D.     relate to international concerns

 

Key

 A

The following question refers to the charts below, which give examples of areas where people volunteer and reasons why they volunteer.

 

 

65.    Choose  three areas of volunteer activity listed in Chart I. For each one,  identify a specific action individuals can take outside their homes, and  explain how it will make a difference in their own community.

1.

__________________________________________________________________

 

__________________________________________________________________

 

__________________________________________________________________

 

__________________________________________________________________

 

__________________________________________________________________

2.

__________________________________________________________________

 

__________________________________________________________________

 

__________________________________________________________________

 

__________________________________________________________________

 

__________________________________________________________________

3.

__________________________________________________________________

 

__________________________________________________________________

 

__________________________________________________________________

 

__________________________________________________________________

 

__________________________________________________________________

 

 

 

Scoring Guide

 

Score & Description

Complete

Identifies three actions and explains how each one would impact their community.

Acceptable

Identifies two actions and explains how each one would impact their community.

Partial

Identifies two actions and explains how one would impact their community.

 

 

OR

 

Identifies one action and explains how it would impact their community

 

 

 

OR

 

Identifies two or three actions but does not explain their impact on the community.

 

Unacceptable

Does not identify specific actions.

 

 

OR

 

Just repeats the wording of the prompt.

 

 

 

OR

 

Identifies one action but does not explain its impact on the community.

 

 

Credited responses could include:

– Education: Volunteer time in schools and after-school programs, serve on the PTA, help with book fairs and fundraisers, serve as tutor in literacy programs. (Tutoring students will enable students to finish assignments, improve their basic skills, and have a positive attitude in school.)

 

– Youth: Boys Scouts, Girls Scouts, Big Brothers/Big Sisters, set good example for youth, serve as role model for kids. (It will make a difference because it will help keep kids off the streets. Kids can be learning and having fun simultaneously.)

 

– Health Care: Volunteer in local hospital, nursing home, etc., learn and teach first aid and CPR, sponsor a blood drive, help neighbors who have AIDS or other illnesses. (Helping read or write letters for hospital patients, delivering mail, pushing wheelchairs, playing with young patients will help patients feel better. Or it can help the doctors and nurses at the hospital by doing cleaning, feeding, and other small tasks they don’t have time to do.)

 

– Poverty and Hunger: Volunteer at soup kitchen or food pantry, collect food for food drive, organize event to benefit homeless people, teach skills to homeless people. (Organizing and collecting food for food kitchens will provide nourishing meals for hungry individuals and families.)

 

– Art and Culture: Organize community arts programs; volunteer in art education programs, volunteer in museum, do fundraising for community arts programs. (Volunteering at museum may enable museums to be open longer hours and expand their services.)

 

– Politics: Work on political campaigns, register people to vote. (Working in political campaigns will help more people become aware of election issues. Increasing political awareness and participation is important for every citizen and community.)

 

– Environment: Participate in community cleanup activities, encourage recycling, carpool to work/school. (Participating in community cleanup drives will make communities cleaner, healthier, and more attractive.)

 

Note: It is acceptable to identify a volunteer action/activity that is unrelated to the chart.

 

Also: A fuzzy action clarified by an explanation is acceptable for action and explanation.

 

66.    The number of electoral votes each state is allotted is based on the state’s

A.     size

B.     representation in Congress

C.     average income

D.     number of years as a state

 

Key

 B

67.    In the United States, what do labor unions, civil rights groups, business associations, and environmental organizations all have in common?

A.     They try to influence public policy and get people elected.

B.     They share the same ideas about political issues.

C.     They are all funded by the federal government.

D.     They have to pay state and federal taxes.

 

Key

 A

68.    Congress has been able to expand the powers of the federal government based largely on its authority to

A.     coin money

B.     govern the District of Columbia

C.     declare war

D.     make all laws necessary to perform its duties

 

Key

 D

 

 

69.    The poster shown above was made during the First World War. What was the poster designed to do?

A.     Make people feel that it would be easy to win the war

B.     Make people feel guilty for thinking that war is harmful

C.     Get people to join the army by making them feel responsible for starting the war

D.     Get people to join the army by appealing to patriotic feelings

 

Key

 D

70.    Give two specific examples of how the United States Constitution limits the power of the government.

1.

__________________________________________________________________

 

__________________________________________________________________

 

__________________________________________________________________

2.

__________________________________________________________________

 

__________________________________________________________________

 

__________________________________________________________________

 

 

 

Scoring Guide

 

Score & Description

Complete

Response describes two ways in which the United States Constitution limits government.

Partial

Response describes one way in which the United States Constitution limits government.

Unacceptable

Response does not correctly describe any ways in which the United States Constitution limits government.

 

Credited responses could include:

– Rule of law : The Constitution is the supreme authority.

 

– Protection of individuals’ rights; the Constitution grants rights to individuals.

(Credited responses can be specific examples of Constitutional rights, (e.g., "The Constitution limits the power of the police to enter your home.")

 

– Representative institutions (elected government)

 

– Separation of powers

 

– Checks and balances; impeachment of the President and judges; presidential veto power, etc.

 

– Federalism

 

– Civilian control of the military

 

– Separation of church and state

 

– Due process

 

Note: A 3-point response cannot include a general response and a subset of that response (e.g., "Bill of Rights" and "freedom of religion," or "Checks and balances" and "Congress can override a presidential veto"), but two specific examples (e.g., "freedom of speech" and "freedom of religion") do earn a 3.

 

Do not accept:

 

– "Amendment"

 

– "Loans"

 

71.    Which activity is an example of civil society rather than an example of government?

A.     The sanitation department picks up Town X’s garbage every Monday morning.

B.     The School Board of Town X decides on its yearly budget.

C.     A builder in Town X asks the planning board to approve his plans for a housing development.

D.     The places of worship in Town X join together to provide food and shelter for the homeless.

 

Key

 D

72.    Two countries both claim that an island in the Pacific Ocean belongs to them. The countries are preparing to go to war with each other over this issue.

What is the United Nations able to do to help end the conflict?

 

A.     Send weapons to both sides

B.     Disarm the militaries of both countries

C.     Arrange for diplomatic negotiations between the two countries

D.     Force all other countries to stop trading with the two countries

 

Key

 C

The following question is based on the article below about those who fought to help women gain the right to vote. Women got that right in 1920.

On November 1, 1872, Susan B. Anthony and her sisters . . . calmly walked into . . . the polling place in their election district. . . . "We are here to register for the vote," said Miss Anthony to the [surprised] election inspector.

 

"Impossible!" he said. "It is not legal for women to vote. We cannot accept your registration."

 

From her handbag, Miss Anthony whipped out a copy of the Constitution of the United States. All three election inspectors gathered around as she slowly read aloud the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments. Then she challenged the inspectors to show her where it said women were specifically left out. The men sputtered and argued in vain. At last they reluctantly registered the four women.

 

 

73.    Why did Susan B. Anthony think a copy of the Constitution would help her?

A.     She knew the Constitution did not say that it was illegal for women to vote.

B.     She knew the election inspectors would see that the Constitution was wrong.

C.     She thought the election inspectors would like the words in the Constitution.

D.     She thought the election inspectors would agree that the Constitution needed to be changed.

 

Key

 A

The following question is based on the article below about those who fought to help women gain the right to vote. Women got that right in 1920.

On November 1, 1872, Susan B. Anthony and her sisters . . . calmly walked into . . . the polling place in their election district. . . . "We are here to register for the vote," said Miss Anthony to the [surprised] election inspector.

 

"Impossible!" he said. "It is not legal for women to vote. We cannot accept your registration."

 

From her handbag, Miss Anthony whipped out a copy of the Constitution of the United States. All three election inspectors gathered around as she slowly read aloud the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments. Then she challenged the inspectors to show her where it said women were specifically left out. The men sputtered and argued in vain. At last they reluctantly registered the four women.

 

 

74.    This story shows an example of

A.     people peacefully protesting against a law they believe is wrong

B.     the police protecting the rights of individuals

C.     the government making a decision to change a bad law

D.     people cooperating to reach a compromise about a law

 

Key

 A

 

 

75.    What is the main message of the cartoon above?

A.     Even though members of Congress say that they want to protect the environment, they drive big, gas-guzzling cars.

B.     Well-funded special interest groups have privileged access to Congress.

C.     Labor and business agree on which policies Congress should follow.

D.     People with money play no role in the political process.

 

Key

 B