Civics Pretest/ assessment : Grade 12 Question and Answers

Civics Pretest/ assessment : Grade 12  Question and Answers

 

Define Civic Life, Politics, Government (8)Foundations of American System (17)Govt Embodiment Amer Democracy (30)US Relationship to Other Nations (10)Roles of Citizens (11)

 

Multiple Choice (61)Short Constructed Response (11)Extended Constructed Response (4)

 

Ballot/View Public Question [1]

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Question 1 refers to Ballot/View Public Question [1]                                                    

Open the envelope labeled X that you have been given

and remove the sample ballot.

The following question refers to the front of the sample ballot that you have been given.

 

 

 

1.   There is one column on the ballot entitled "Nomination by Petition." What

can you assume from the presence of this column on the ballot?

A.     Voters cannot submit petitions directly to the government.

B.     None of the candidates in this column is likely to receive more than 10

percent of the vote.

C.     More Independents than Democrats or Republicans wanted to run for

President.

D.     Candidates who are not from major parties but show a certain level of

support can get on the ballot.

 

Key

 D

Question 2 refers to Ballot/View Public Question [1]                                                    

Open the envelope labeled X that you have been given

and remove the sample ballot.

The following question refers to the front of the sample ballot that you have been given.

 

 

 

2.   From this ballot, you can tell that voters are NOT allowed to vote for

A.     a President from one party and a member of Congress from another party

B.     more than one candidate for any office

C.     a President from one party and a Vice President from another party

D.     members of the electoral college

 

Key

 C

Question 3 refers to Ballot/View Public Question [1]                                                    

Open the envelope labeled X that you have been given

and remove the sample ballot.

The following question refers to the front of the sample ballot that you have been given.

 

 

 

3.   What can you infer about the 1992 election from the ballot?

A.     Neither of the state’s United States senators was up for reelection in 1992.

B.     Third parties try to build support by winning local elections.

C.     The Republicans are far stronger in this state than are the Democrats.

D.     This state had changed its polling hours between 1988 and 1992.

 

Key

 A

Question 4 refers to Ballot/View Public Question [1]                                                    

The following question deal with the Public BR>have been given.

 

 

4.   If Public Question 1 is approved by the voters, it will give the state the ability to

A.     incur $345 million of debt to be used at the governor’s discretion

B.     incur $345 million of debt to be used for recreational, conservation, and

environmental projects

C.     raise taxes by $345 million per year to gain funds for recreational,

conservation, and environmental projects

D.     ask the federal government for $345 million in aid to be used on

recreational, conservation, and environmental projects

 

Key

 B

Question 5 refers to Ballot/View Public Question [1]                                                    

The following question deal with the Public BR>have been given.

 

 

5.   Give one argument for and one argument against the approval of Public

Question 1.

Argument for:

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Argument against:

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Scoring Guide

 

Score & Description

COMPLETE

Response gives one valid argument for and one valid argument against public question 1.

PARTIAL

Response gives one valid argument for OR one valid argument against the question.

UNACCEPTABLE

Response does not give a valid argument either for or against the question.

 

6.   Assume that you are a member of Students Against Drunk Driving (SADD)

and that you believe that laws against drunk driving should be strengthened.

Identify two ways that you could try to get the laws changed. For each way

explain why you think your actions could be effective.

 

1)

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2)

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Scoring Guide

 

Score & Description

COMPLETE

Response identifies TWO ways to try to get laws changed and explains why the actions proposed would help in getting laws changed

ACCEPTABLE

Response identifies ONE way or TWO ways to try to get laws changed, but only provides one explanation about why a proposed action would be effective in getting the law changed.

PARTIAL

Response identifies ONE or TWO ways to change laws, but does not explain why any proposed action would be effective or does so unconvincingly.

UNACCEPTABLE

Response does not identify any practical way to change the laws or give any reasonable explanations.

 

The following question is about federalism.

 

 

7.   Federalism: A way of organizing a nation so that two or more levels of

government have authority over the same land and people.

Which fact about American government reflects the above definition of

federalism?

 

A.     Power is divided among legislative, executive, and judicial branches.

B.     Private organizations in the United States do much of the work that is

performed by local governments in other countries.

C.     Citizens in the United States are subject to both state and federal laws.

D.     Citizens in the United States have a right to protection from intrusion

into their private affairs.

 

Key

 C

The following question is about federalism.

 

 

8.   In the United States, what occurs when state and national laws are in

conflict?

A.     The state law is enforced.

B.     The national law is enforced.

C.     The state decides which law to enforce.

D.     The public holds a referendum to decide which law should be enforced.

 

Key

 B

                                           Copyright ® The Commercial Appeal. Reprinted by permission.

 

 

9.   What is the main message of the cartoon above?

A.     Even though members of Congress say that they are for protecting the

environment, they tend to drive big, gas-guzzling cars.

B.     Well-funded special interest groups have privileged access to Congress.

C.     Labor and business agree on which policies Congress should follow.

D.     People with money play no role in the political process.

 

Key

 B

The following question is about the graph below.

 

 

 

10.    In which year did the two main political parties attract the largest total

percentage of all adult Americans?

A.     1940

B.     1950

C.     1982

D.     1992

 

Key

 A

The following question is about the graph below.

 

 

 

11.    What is the main trend over time shown in the bar graph?

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Give one explanation for why this trend has occurred.

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Scoring Guide

 

Score & Description

COMPLETE

Response both understands that the graph is about partisan identification, not voting, and accurately explains the trend.

PARTIAL

Response understands the graph, but cannot explain the trend.

OR

Response does not correctly identify the trend, but provides an accurate explanation of the trend.

UNACCEPTABLE

Response does not show an understanding of the graph.

 

The following question is about the following situation.

     Members of a community have been arguing about the subject matter

taught in the local high school. This argument has led both sides to demonstrate

outside city council meetings. Also, one group staged a sit-in at the local board

of education. Below are quotes from two citizens who have different opinions

about these protests.

 

      Patrick: "Government’s most important job is to maintain order and protect

public safety. How can elected officials ever do their work if people are

criticizing them all the time?"

 

     Elena: "I think it’s important that people let their opinions be known.

Protests are okay as long as they are not violent."

 

 

 

12.    The argument between Patrick and Elena shows a debate common in

American politics. This debate best reflects the conflict between

A.     the need to maintain order and the rights of individuals

B.     the will of the majority and the rights of the minority

C.     representative government and direct participatory democracy

D.     parental rights and governmental control of education

 

Key

 A

The following question is about the following situation.

     Members of a community have been arguing about the subject matter

taught in the local high school. This argument has led both sides to demonstrate

outside city council meetings. Also, one group staged a sit-in at the local board

of education. Below are quotes from two citizens who have different opinions

about these protests.

 

      Patrick: "Government’s most important job is to maintain order and protect

public safety. How can elected officials ever do their work if people are

criticizing them all the time?"

 

     Elena: "I think it’s important that people let their opinions be known.

Protests are okay as long as they are not violent."

 

 

 

13.     

What constitutional principle could Elena cite to argue against Patrick?

Explain why the principle supports Elena’s view.

 

 

 

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Scoring Guide

 

Score & Description

COMPLETE

Response cites an appropriate constitutional principle and clearly explains why it supports Elena’s position.

PARTIAL

Response cites an appropriate constitutional principle but offers no clear explanation of why it supports Elena’s position.

UNACCEPTABLE

Response gives no appropriate constitutional principle.

 

The following question is based on the quotation below.

     We have a constitutional system that so fragments and divides power that

it’s impossible to give this country effective, long-run leadership . . . . The

system has led to an inability to plan and get on top of problems ahead of

time. Even at best, this country has always been twenty to sixty years behind

other industrial democracies in dealing with tough problems.

                                                                 —James MacGregor Burns, 1988

 

 

 

14.    Which aspect of United States government might Burns cite to support his

argument?

A.     The use of the electoral college in presidential elections

B.     The President’s power as commander in chief

C.     The division of policy-making power among national, state, and local

governments

D.     The role of political parties in congressional decision making

 

Key

 C

The following question is based on the quotation below.

     We have a constitutional system that so fragments and divides power that

it’s impossible to give this country effective, long-run leadership . . . . The

system has led to an inability to plan and get on top of problems ahead of

time. Even at best, this country has always been twenty to sixty years behind

other industrial democracies in dealing with tough problems.

 

 

                                                                 —James MacGregor Burns, 1988

 

 

 

15.    Parliamentary systems might not show the same fragmentation that Burns finds in the American system because in parliamentary systems

A.     more real power is given to local governments

B.     power is not divided among three branches of government

C.     governments do not try to play an active role in the economy

D.     political parties do not differ over important issues

 

Key

 B

 

 

16.    The graph above best supports which conclusion?

A.     State governments increased spending at a higher rate than local or federal

government.

B.     The Great Depression of the 1930’s saw the greatest increase in federal

government spending.

C.     State and local governments decreased their spending in the 1960’s.

D.     Since 1950, all levels of government have increased their spending.

 

Key

 D

The following question is based on the passage below.

     On May 17, 1954, in  Brown v.  Board of Education, the Supreme Court

ruled that laws mandating racially segregated public school systems were

unconstitutional. The Supreme Court later argued that federal courts should

take steps to bring about the integration of segregated school systems "with all

deliberate speed."

 

     In 1957, Governor Orval Faubus of Arkansas called on the National Guard

to turn away nine African American students as they attempted to enter

Central High School in Little Rock. President Eisenhower, who did not

support the  Brown decision, called out federal troops to protect the rights of

the African American students to attend the school.

 

 

 

17.    The events at Central High School in Little Rock showed that

A.     people at all levels of government supported the goal of school integration

B.     the public supported the Supreme Court decision in the  Brown case

C.     states do not attempt to resist Supreme Court decisions

D.     the Supreme Court decision by itself did not do away with segregation

 

Key

 D

The following question is based on the passage below.

     On May 17, 1954, in  Brown v.  Board of Education, the Supreme Court

ruled that laws mandating racially segregated public school systems were

unconstitutional. The Supreme Court later argued that federal courts should

take steps to bring about the integration of segregated school systems "with all

deliberate speed."

 

     In 1957, Governor Orval Faubus of Arkansas called on the National Guard

to turn away nine African American students as they attempted to enter

Central High School in Little Rock. President Eisenhower, who did not

support the  Brown decision, called out federal troops to protect the rights of

the African American students to attend the school.

 

 

 

18.    President Eisenhower called out federal troops because he

A.     had a long career in the military

B.     believed that the governor needed his assistance

C.     was required by the Constitution to enforce the rule of law

D.     wanted to show that the federal government would protect the rights of protesters

 

Key

 C

The following question is based on the passage below.

     On May 17, 1954, in  Brown v.  Board of Education, the Supreme Court

ruled that laws mandating racially segregated public school systems were

unconstitutional. The Supreme Court later argued that federal courts should

take steps to bring about the integration of segregated school systems "with all

deliberate speed."

 

     In 1957, Governor Orval Faubus of Arkansas called on the National Guard

to turn away nine African American students as they attempted to enter

Central High School in Little Rock. President Eisenhower, who did not

support the  Brown decision, called out federal troops to protect the rights of

the African American students to attend the school.

 

 

 

19.    The events described in the passage suggest that early attempts at school

integration

A.     led to a power struggle between state governments and the federal

government

B.     were opposed by many in the South but were widely popular in other

parts of the country

C.     proceeded without incident after the Little Rock standoff

D.     were supported by elected officials but opposed by the courts

 

Key

 A

The following question refers to the cartoon below, which was drawn in the 1960’s.

                                                                            Reprinted by permission.

 

 

 

20.    The situation shown in the cartoon was known as

A.     big stick diplomacy

B.     the domino effect

C.     the good neighbor policy

D.     the Laos doctrine

 

Key

 B

The following question refers to the cartoon below, which was drawn in the 1960’s.

                                                                            Reprinted by permission.

 

 

 

21.    Describe the foreign policy concern pictured in the cartoon.

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Do you think this concern was valid? Explain why or why not.

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Scoring Guide

 

Score & Description

COMPLETE

Response correctly describes the foreign policy concern pictured and gives a clear discussion of why it was or was not valid. (Does not explicitly need to refer to Communism; USSR is sufficient.)

PARTIAL

Response correctly describes the concern pictured, but gives no explanation of whether or not it was valid, or explanation is vague or weak (e.g., "It was valid because the U.S. was in danger.")

UNACCEPTABLE

Response does not correctly describe the concern pictured or give a reasonable explanation of whether it was valid or not.

 

"We need an intensified voter registration drive, a determined effort to

integrate the public schools, lunch counters, public parks, theaters, etc."

                                                                  — Martin Luther King, Jr., 1961

"These legislative and judicial victories did very little to improve the lot

of millions of Negroes in the teeming ghettos of the North…. The issues

which we confront are the hard core economic issues."

                                                                  — Martin Luther King, Jr., 1966

 

 

 

22.    In what fundamental way do the two quotes above show different

understandings of the rights of citizens?

A.     In the first quote, rights are assumed to belong to individuals; in the

second quote rights are assigned to groups.

B.     The first quote focuses on political and legal rights; the second quote

focuses on economic rights and opportunities.

C.     The first quote focuses on the rights of people in rural areas; the second

quote focuses on the rights of people in cities.

D.     The first quote defines rights as belonging to all humans; the second quote

defines rights as belonging only to citizens.

 

Key

 B

23.    In the area of United States foreign policy, Congress shares power with the

A.     President

B.     Supreme Court

C.     state governments

D.     United Nations

 

Key

 A

 

 

24.    What does the graph above tell you about the earnings of men versus women?

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What are two reasons that explain the relationship between men’s and

women’s earnings as shown in the graph?

1)

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2)

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Scoring Guide

 

Score & Description

COMPLETE

Response provides a succinct statement of the inequality revealed in the figures and provides two specific examples as explanation.

ACCEPTABLE

Response provides a statement of the inequality revealed in the figures, and provides one specific example as an explanation

OR

Response provides no statement of inequality but provides two specific examples to offer an explanation.

PARTIAL

Response provides a statement of inequality revealed in the figures, but offers no reasons to explain these discrepancies

OR

Response provides no statement of inequality but provides one specific example as an explanation.

UNACCEPTABLE

Response does not correctly identify or evaluate the differences between the earnings of men and women as represented in the graph.

 

25.    In recent years, a United States President and a Japanese Prime Minister would most

likely have argued over which issue?

A.     Japan’s wish to enter the North Atlantic Treaty Organization

B.     Japan’s development of nuclear weapons

C.     America’s desire to have greater access to Japanese markets

D.     America’s discrimination toward Japanese nationals

 

Key

 C

26.    Explain three ways in which the power of the President can be checked by the

legislative or the judicial branch.

1)

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2)

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3)

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Scoring Guide

 

Score & Description

COMPLETE

Response gives three accurate explanations of ways in which the President is checked by another branch of government.

ACCEPTABLE

Response gives two accurate explanations of ways in which the President is checked.

PARTIAL

Response gives one accurate explanation of a way in which the President is checked.

UNACCEPTABLE

Response does not give any accurate ways in which the President is checked by another branch.

 

The following question refers to the newspaper article below.

MICHIGAN WELFARE PLAN DRAWS UNLIKELY SUPPORT

 

     Michigan governor John Engler is pursuing changes in welfare policy that

are pleasing the Clinton administration more than his Republican allies on

Capitol Hill.

 

     The Democrats’ unlikely and somewhat unwilling hero announced an

ambitious pilot project . . . that seeks to cut welfare costs by providing

generous social services so that poor people can go to work. Democrats call

his plan enlightened. Republicans have been caught off guard.

 

     Senator Daniel Patrick Moynihan, Democrat of New York, . . . praised Mr.

Engler for breaking with congressional Republicans by using child care and

transportation subsidies and fashioning a more active role for social workers

in an effort to turn welfare recipients into workers.

                                                 —The New York Times, January 22, 1996

 

 

 

27.    What does the article show about American politics?

A.     There is wide support for continuing welfare services in their current

form.

B.     The number of people receiving welfare services has increased markedly

over recent years.

C.     Political parties are not ideologically unified, and people within parties

may differ over issues like welfare reform.

D.     Democrats are thought to be more liberal than Republicans, but they are

in fact more likely to champion the elimination of welfare services.

 

Key

 C

The following question refers to the newspaper article below.

MICHIGAN WELFARE PLAN DRAWS UNLIKELY SUPPORT

 

     Michigan governor John Engler is pursuing changes in welfare policy that

are pleasing the Clinton administration more than his Republican allies on

Capitol Hill.

 

     The Democrats’ unlikely and somewhat unwilling hero announced an

ambitious pilot project . . . that seeks to cut welfare costs by providing

generous social services so that poor people can go to work. Democrats call

his plan enlightened. Republicans have been caught off guard.

 

     Senator Daniel Patrick Moynihan, Democrat of New York, . . . praised Mr.

Engler for breaking with congressional Republicans by using child care and

transportation subsidies and fashioning a more active role for social workers

in an effort to turn welfare recipients into workers.

                                                 —The New York Times, January 22, 1996

 

 

 

28.    In what way does the article show one of the strengths of federalism?

A.     People will receive the same level of income support no matter where they

live.

B.     States may serve as sites for experimentation with new public policies.

C.     The national government can force other states to follow Governor

Engler’s lead.

D.     The federal government may prevent Michigan from treating its citizens

unfairly.

 

Key

 B

The following question refers to the newspaper article below.

MICHIGAN WELFARE PLAN DRAWS UNLIKELY SUPPORT

 

     Michigan governor John Engler is pursuing changes in welfare policy that

are pleasing the Clinton administration more than his Republican allies on

Capitol Hill.

 

     The Democrats’ unlikely and somewhat unwilling hero announced an

ambitious pilot project . . . that seeks to cut welfare costs by providing

generous social services so that poor people can go to work. Democrats call

his plan enlightened. Republicans have been caught off guard.

 

     Senator Daniel Patrick Moynihan, Democrat of New York, . . . praised Mr.

Engler for breaking with congressional Republicans by using child care and

transportation subsidies and fashioning a more active role for social workers

in an effort to turn welfare recipients into workers.

                                                 —The New York Times, January 22, 1996

 

 

 

29.    Many congressional Republicans might object to Engler’s plan because it

A.     involves increased government spending for transportation and child care

B.     is not aimed at getting people off welfare and back to work

C.     does not extend the social safety net far enough

D.     places the state government in competition with private companies for employees

 

Key

 A

The following question refers to the statement below.

Americans volunteer to work with a wide variety of nongovernmental

organizations. Volunteers provide social services, work to clean the

environment, and help to educate the young. But while many people view

volunteerism as a "good" thing, they do not understand just how important

volunteers are to the health of American democracy. Volunteerism both

makes people better citizens, and helps restrain the growth of government in a

way that protects the freedom of all.

 

 

 

30.    What is one example of the type of volunteer work referred to in the

statement above?

A.     The Environmental Protection Agency cleans up toxic waste dumps.

B.     A public school sponsors after-school programs for children whose parents

work.

C.     A youth group holds a food drive to help poor people.

D.     Soldiers are sent to help put out forest fires threatening homes.

 

Key

 C

The following question refers to the statement below.

Americans volunteer to work with a wide variety of nongovernmental

organizations. Volunteers provide social services, work to clean the

environment, and help to educate the young. But while many people view

volunteerism as a "good" thing, they do not understand just how important

volunteers are to the health of American democracy. Volunteerism both

makes people better citizens, and helps restrain the growth of government in a

way that protects the freedom of all.

 

 

 

31.    Give  one reason that explains how volunteer work can make people better

citizens.

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Give  one reason that explains how volunteer work can restrain the growth of

government.

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Scoring Guide

 

Score & Description

COMPLETE

The response gives one reason to explain why volunteer work makes people better citizens and one reason to explain how volunteer work helps restrain government.

PARTIAL

The response gives either one reason that volunteer work makes people better citizens

OR

one reason to explain how volunteer work helps restrain the growth of government.

UNACCEPTABLE

The response does not respond to either portion of the question.

 

32.    What is one important way in which central political principles of the United

States government have had a major effect on United States foreign policy?

A.     The United States has usually supported movements in foreign countries

to give all citizens basic economic rights.

B.     The United States has played a leading role in the international

environmental movement.

C.     The United States has supported the growth of Western-style democracy

in countries that were once communist dictatorships.

D.     The United States has consistently encouraged its allies to develop federal

systems of government.

 

Key

 C

The following question refers to the following passage from the 1848 report of Horace

Mann, secretary to the Massachusetts Board of Education.

     According to the European theory, men are divided into classes—some to

toil and earn, others to seize and enjoy. According to the Massachusetts

theory, all are to have an equal chance for earning. Vast and overshadowing

private fortunes are among the greatest dangers to which the happiness of the

people in a republic can be subjected.

 

     The main idea set forth in the creeds of some political reformers, or

revolutionizers, is, that some people are poor  because others are rich. This

idea supposes a fixed amount of property in the community, which, by fraud

or force, or arbitrary law, is unequally divided among men. But education

creates or develops new treasures, treasures not before possessed or dreamed

of by anyone.

 

 

 

33.    The passage implies that poor people will improve their lives through

A.     violent revolution

B.     nonviolent resistance

C.     studying and learning

D.     union organization

 

Key

 C

The following question refers to the following passage from the 1848 report of Horace

Mann, secretary to the Massachusetts Board of Education.

     According to the European theory, men are divided into classes—some to

toil and earn, others to seize and enjoy. According to the Massachusetts

theory, all are to have an equal chance for earning. Vast and overshadowing

private fortunes are among the greatest dangers to which the happiness of the

people in a republic can be subjected.

 

     The main idea set forth in the creeds of some political reformers, or

revolutionizers, is, that some people are poor  because others are rich. This

idea supposes a fixed amount of property in the community, which, by fraud

or force, or arbitrary law, is unequally divided among men. But education

creates or develops new treasures, treasures not before possessed or dreamed

of by anyone.

 

 

 

34.    Mann suggests that universal public education can prevent the

A.     accumulation of private wealth

B.     formation of a rigid and permanent class system

C.     need for public charity

D.     formation of stable republican government

 

Key

 B

 

 

35.    Which of the following statements is supported by the data presented in the

graph above?

A.     In current dollars the poverty line has decreased substantially in the thirty

years following 1960.

B.     The average yearly AFDC benefits increased substantially during the Bush

presidency, 1989-1992.

C.     In current dollars the average AFDC benefit remained constant over the

period covered by the graph.

D.     Since about 1980, the average annual benefit of a family receiving AFDC

has declined relative to the poverty line.

 

Key

 D

The following question refers to the poster below, which was produced by a government

agency during the Second World War.

 

 

 

36.    We can infer from the poster that our enemies in the war

A.     threatened the rights Americans believed were most important

B.     believed that freedom of worship was the most important of all liberties

C.     had more troops and money than we did

D.     were winning on the battlefield

 

Key

 A

The following question refers to the poster below, which was produced by a government

agency during the Second World War.

 

 

 

37.    The freedom that is the subject of the poster is protected by the

A.     Declaration of Independence

B.     Preamble to the Constitution

C.     First Amendment to the Constitution

D.     Gettysburg Address

 

Key

 C

The following question refers to the poster below, which was produced by a government

agency during the Second World War.

 

 

 

38.    From the poster you can tell that

A.     there was little support for the Second World War in the United States

B.     the government wanted Americans to be part of the war effort

C.     average American citizens knew little about the Second World War

D.     the government was afraid to ask the people for help in the war effort

 

Key

 B

The following question is about the quotation below.

"Absolute arbitrary power, or governing without settled laws, can neither of them be consistent with the ends of society and government."

 

       - John Locke

 

 

39.    Which of the following statements is most consistent with the Locke quotation above?

A.     Weak government is worse than no government.

B.     Governmental power should be limited.

C.     Laws should never be changed.

D.     Only wise people can exercise power.

 

Key

 B

The following question is about the quotation below.

"Absolute arbitrary power, or governing without settled laws, can neither of them be consistent with the ends of society and government."

 

       - John Locke

 

 

40.    List two ways the American system of government is designed to prevent "absolute arbitrary power" and "governing without settled laws."

1.

__________________________________________________________________

 

__________________________________________________________________

 

__________________________________________________________________

 

2.

 

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Scoring Guide

 

Score & Description

Complete

Response correctly lists two ways that the American government is designed to prevent these problems.

Partial

Response correctly lists one way that the American government prevents these problems.

Unacceptable

Response does not give any ways the American government prevents these problems.

 

Credited responses could include:

Variations on several points are acceptable:

 

WRITTEN CONSTITUTION:

 

– Written constitution and body of specific laws that control the government

 

– Bill of Rights

 

– Rule of law

 

SEPARATION OF POWERS AND/OR CHECKS AND BALANCES:

 

– Independent judiciary

 

– Checks on executive branch keep it from having absolute power. (All checks and balances serve this purpose.)

 

Do not accept:

 

– Responses such as "Congress," "Supreme Court," or "President"

 

FEDERALISM:

 

– The federal system divides power between federal and state governments.

 

OTHER:

 

– The vote — Most government officials can be voted out of power.

 

– Military is under civilian control.

 

– Public initiatives and referenda allow citizens to make laws directly.

 

– Most public offices have relatively short terms.

 

– Civil liberties and civil rights are guaranteed.

 

– The legislative process is designed to move slowly in order to prevent arbitrary power.

 

The following question refers to the quotation below.

I often wondered whether we do not rest our hopes too much upon constitutions, upon laws and upon courts. These are false hopes; believe me, these are false hopes. Liberty lives in the hearts of men and women; when it dies there, no constitution, no law, no court can save it.

 

       - Judge Learned Hand, 1941

 

 

41.    Which of the following best summarizes Judge Hand’s argument about constitutional democracy in the United States?

A.     Constitutions are a serious obstacle to individual liberties.

B.     Constitutions allow governments to disregard individual liberties.

C.     Individual liberties depend on citizens committed to the protection of those liberties.

D.     Individual liberties can only be safeguarded by a written constitution and an independent judiciary.

 

Key

 C

The following question refers to the quotation below.

I often wondered whether we do not rest our hopes too much upon constitutions, upon laws and upon courts. These are false hopes; believe me, these are false hopes. Liberty lives in the hearts of men and women; when it dies there, no constitution, no law, no court can save it.

 

        – Judge Learned Hand, 1941

 

 

42.    It can be concluded from the quotation that Judge Hand believed it was most important that citizens

A.     vote for candidates who support their views

B.     rely on the courts to safeguard their rights

C.     amend the Constitution whenever necessary

D.     protect their freedoms through political participation

 

Key

 D

The following question refers to the map below, which shows congressional districts in Louisiana. The numbers on the map refer to congressional districts.

 

 

43.    The congressional district boundaries shown on the map were probably drawn by the

A.     state constitutional convention

B.     United States Congress

C.     Federal Election Commission

D.     Louisiana state legislature

 

Key

 D

The following question refers to the map below, which shows congressional districts in Louisiana. The numbers on the map refer to congressional districts.

 

 

44.    Which of the following would best explain why there may be more than seven congressional districts in Louisiana in the year 2002?

A.     The state legislature votes to increase the number of representatives to give the state more decision-making power.

B.     The year 2000 census indicates that the population of Louisiana increased proportionately more than that of other states.

C.     The Supreme Court decides to increase the number of representatives in all southern states.

D.     Citizens of Louisiana vote yes on a referendum to increase the number of representatives in Congress.

 

Key

 B

The following question refers to the map below, which shows congressional districts in Louisiana. The numbers on the map refer to congressional districts.

 

 

45.    From the map, you can conclude that congressional district 2 must

A.     include a large urban area

B.     have fewer people than the other districts

C.     have been drawn to protect an incumbent

D.     be a very old congressional district

 

Key

 A

The following question refers to the map below, which shows congressional districts in Louisiana. The numbers on the map refer to congressional districts.

 

 

46.    You will note that some of the districts in the map have irregular shapes. In the space below, explain two reasons why district boundaries sometimes have irregular shapes like the ones you see in the map.

1.

__________________________________________________________________

 

__________________________________________________________________

 

__________________________________________________________________

 

__________________________________________________________________

 

2.

 

__________________________________________________________________

 

__________________________________________________________________

 

__________________________________________________________________

 

__________________________________________________________________

 

 

 

Scoring Guide

 

Score & Description

Complete

Response gives two valid reasons for oddly shaped districts such as the one shown.

Partial

Response gives one valid reason for oddly shaped districts.

Unacceptable

Response gives no valid reasons for oddly shaped districts.

 

Credited responses could include:

GERRYMANDERING, SUCH AS:

 

– Politicians engineer odd boundaries in order to give a particular party or candidate an electoral advantage.

 

– Some boundaries have been drawn to concentrate the voting strength of certain groups.

 

OTHER REASONS, SUCH AS:

 

– Some boundaries have been drawn because they are traditional or political boundaries, such as county (parish) borders or edges of cities, towns or neighborhoods. ("State borders" is not a credited answer.)

 

– Some boundaries have been drawn to reflect natural boundaries/landmarks (topography, waterways).

 

– In some cases (such as coastal districts) there may be shared economic interests.

 

– Some boundaries unite a constituency favorable to a political incumbent in a single district.

 

– Lines are drawn to reflect religious concentrations.

 

– Striving to obtain a more heterogenous population.

 

– Need to adjust or equalize population size in districts/make proportional districts.

 

– To separate urban from suburban districts.

 

– "Gerrymandering"

 

Do not accept:

 

– "Because of the population"; "To avoid discrimination"; "It depends on the population"; "It’s based on the population."

 

47.    Describe  one policy area in which  state governments affect the lives of citizens.

 

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

 

Scoring Guide

 

Score & Description

Complete

Response answers both parts of the question, properly identifying a function of state government and suggesting a way citizens could affect that policy.

Partial

Response gives an area in which state governments affect citizens, but does not say how citizens affect the government.

 

 

OR

 

response addresses both parts of the question, but is vague and/or incomplete (e.g., "State governments have passed laws, but citizens can say they don’t like them.").

 

Unacceptable

Response does not give an appropriate description for either part of the question, for example, by describing a federal function.

 

Credited responses could include:

State governments are responsible for:

 

– laws governing education, education funding

 

– regulating trade within the state/weights and measures

 

– laws governing alcohol consumption/drinking age

 

– establishing local governments

 

– fishing and hunting regulations

 

– protecting public health and safety/health care/restaurants/hospital

 

– stimulating the economy to provide adequate employment

 

– ratifying federal constitutional amendments

 

– gambling laws (casinos/lottery)

 

– setting tax rates/raising tax rates

 

– conducting elections

 

– setting of source prices (e.g., milk, natural gas)

 

– their state constitutions and forms of government, legislation

 

– setting the legal age to marry

 

– establishing and supporting public schools

 

– motor vehicle regulations — speed limits, driving age, etc.

 

State governments share certain powers with the federal government, including:

 

– setting tax rates, raising taxes

 

– highway maintenance and construction

 

– establishing courts

 

– laws determining eligibility for welfare benefits

 

– law enforcement

 

– firearms regulations

 

– use of public lands

 

– gun laws

 

– banning smoking in public places

 

Similar forms of citizen involvement could apply to many of these state functions, including:

 

– contacting state representatives (letters, petitions, marches)

 

– voting

 

– community organizing

 

– lobbying

 

– campaigning for candidates who support certain policies

 

– joining civic organizations with an interest in areas affected by state government

 

– citizens can voice their opinions at state government meetings

 

 

 

48.    Which statement helps to explain the data presented in the graph above?

A.     Federal government has been growing much faster than state or local governments because increasing numbers of people rely on the federal government for different services.

B.     Local governments employ more people than do state or federal governments because local governments meet the direct needs of so many people in so many different places.

C.     State governments employ fewer people than do local governments because state governments run much more efficiently than are local governments.

D.     Federal, state, and local governments have increased at the same rates over a 70-year period because the system of federalism divides responsibilities among different levels of government.

 

Key

 B

49.    Which statement about the making of United States foreign policy is accurate?

A.     State governments, through their ability to negotiate independent trade agreements, have preeminent authority in making foreign policy.

B.     The Senate, because of its power of treaty ratification, has more power in setting foreign policy than does the President.

C.     The Supreme Court, because it can rule on the constitutionality of executive actions, dominates foreign policy.

D.     Congress and the courts have some authority over foreign policy, but the President and the state department have the greatest authority.

 

Key

 D

50.    While most voters identify with a political party, they do not always vote for candidates from that political party. Describe two factors besides political party identification that influence voter preference.

1.

__________________________________________________________________

 

__________________________________________________________________

 

__________________________________________________________________

 

__________________________________________________________________

 

2.

 

__________________________________________________________________

 

__________________________________________________________________

 

__________________________________________________________________

 

__________________________________________________________________

 

 

 

Scoring Guide

 

Score & Description

Complete

Response names two factors of some importance other than political party identification; influencing voter preference.

Partial

Response names one appropriate factor other than political party identification; influencing voter preference.

Unacceptable

Response does not name any factors of import other than political party identification; influencing voter preference (e.g., "candidate has a nice voice").

 

 

OR

 

Response offers inappropriate factors (e.g., "I had a bad day").

 

 

Credited responses could include:

– Candidate’s position on specific unnamed issues

 

– Candidate’s position on specific (named) issue

 

– Media or editorial endorsements

 

– Candidate’s image

 

– The way the candidate conducted his/her campaign

 

– Candidate’s religion, race, ethnicity, gender, values, ethics

 

– If candidate is an incumbent; whether the candidate has served voter/district well

 

– Candidate’s election prospects (Many people do not wish to "waste" their vote on a losing candidate.)

 

– Candidate’s history, background, experience

 

– Candidate’s family

 

– Trust that the candidate will do what s/he says

 

– Voter’s age

 

– Voter’s education

 

– Voter’s occupation

 

Do not accept:

 

– One-word answers (e.g., "image")

 

– Cynical answers

 

– "Voter’s background" (unless specific characteristic is given)

 

Note: Student receives complete credit for 2 acceptable factors even if the answers are written in the same space.

 

The following question refers to the passages below, taken from the Supreme Court’s majority opinion and Justice Harlan’s dissent in the case of  Lochner v.  New York (1905). In this case, the state of New York had passed a law that limited the number of hours that an employee of a bakery could work to no more than sixty hours a week. Lochner was a baker who challenged the constitutionality of the law in the courts.

The statute necessarily interferes with the right of contract between the employer and employees…. The general right to make a contract…is part of the liberty of the individual protected by the Fourteenth Amendment…. Under that provision, no State can deprive any person of life, liberty, or property without due process of law. The right to purchase or sell labor is part of the liberty protected by this amendment….

 

       - Justice Peckham, delivering the majority opinion of the Court

 

It is plain that this statute was enacted in order to protect the physical well-being of those who work in bakeries…. The statute must be taken as expressing the belief of the people of New York that, as a general rule, labor in excess of sixty hours a week…may endanger the health of those who thus labor…. Our duty, I submit, is to sustain the statute as not being in conflict with the Federal Constitution.

 

       - Justice Harlan, in his dissenting opinion

 

 

51.    What was the effect of the Supreme Court decision in the case of  Lochner v.  New York?

A.     The power to regulate working hours and conditions was given to the courts.

B.     The federal government alone could interfere with the right to make contracts.

C.     The law limiting the number of hours people could work was allowed to stand.

D.     The law limiting the number of hours people could work was ruled unconstitutional.

 

Key

 D

The following question refers to the passages below, taken from the Supreme Court’s majority opinion and Justice Harlan’s dissent in the case of  Lochner v.  New York (1905). In this case, the state of New York had passed a law that limited the number of hours that an employee of a bakery could work to no more than sixty hours a week. Lochner was a baker who challenged the constitutionality of the law in the courts.

The statute necessarily interferes with the right of contract between the employer and employees…. The general right to make a contract…is part of the liberty of the individual protected by the Fourteenth Amendment…. Under that provision, no State can deprive any person of life, liberty, or property without due process of law. The right to purchase or sell labor is part of the liberty protected by this amendment….

 

       - Justice Peckham, delivering the majority opinion of the Court

 

It is plain that this statute was enacted in order to protect the physical well-being of those who work in bakeries…. The statute must be taken as expressing the belief of the people of New York that, as a general rule, labor in excess of sixty hours a week…may endanger the health of those who thus labor…. Our duty, I submit, is to sustain the statute as not being in conflict with the Federal Constitution.

 

       - Justice Harlan, in his dissenting opinion

 

 

52.    What is one way that political attitudes toward government regulation have changed since the decision in the  Lochner case?

A.     Government today is largely unwilling to regulate private contracts.

B.     The federal government no longer applies the Fourteenth Amendment to state laws.

C.     It is generally accepted that the government should take some actions to defend the health and safety of workers.

D.     It is generally accepted that the government should play a role in enforcing contracts, but not in trying to influence their content.

 

Key

 C

The following question refers to the passages below, taken from the Supreme Court’s majority opinion and Justice Harlan’s dissent in the case of  Lochner v.  New York (1905). In this case, the state of New York had passed a law that limited the number of hours that an employee of a bakery could work to no more than sixty hours a week. Lochner was a baker who challenged the constitutionality of the law in the courts.

The statute necessarily interferes with the right of contract between the employer and employees…. The general right to make a contract…is part of the liberty of the individual protected by the Fourteenth Amendment…. Under that provision, no State can deprive any person of life, liberty, or property without due process of law. The right to purchase or sell labor is part of the liberty protected by this amendment….

 

       - Justice Peckham, delivering the majority opinion of the Court

 

It is plain that this statute was enacted in order to protect the physical well-being of those who work in bakeries…. The statute must be taken as expressing the belief of the people of New York that, as a general rule, labor in excess of sixty hours a week…may endanger the health of those who thus labor…. Our duty, I submit, is to sustain the statute as not being in conflict with the Federal Constitution.

 

       - Justice Harlan, in his dissenting opinion

 

 

53.    Which of the following arguments supports the majority decision?

A.     The law should be applied to all people equally, without regard to race, creed, or color.

B.     Government should play as small a role as possible in civil society and the economy.

C.     The Supreme Court should never overturn state laws, since these tend to reflect the will of the majority.

D.     There are times when the government will know what is best for individuals, even though the individuals may not agree.

 

Key

 B

The following question refers to the passages below, taken from the Supreme Court’s majority opinion and Justice Harlan’s dissent in the case of  Lochner v.  New York (1905). In this case, the state of New York had passed a law that limited the number of hours that an employee of a bakery could work to no more than sixty hours a week. Lochner was a baker who challenged the constitutionality of the law in the courts.

The statute necessarily interferes with the right of contract between the employer and employees…. The general right to make a contract…is part of the liberty of the individual protected by the Fourteenth Amendment…. Under that provision, no State can deprive any person of life, liberty, or property without due process of law. The right to purchase or sell labor is part of the liberty protected by this amendment….

 

       - Justice Peckham, delivering the majority opinion of the Court

 

It is plain that this statute was enacted in order to protect the physical well-being of those who work in bakeries…. The statute must be taken as expressing the belief of the people of New York that, as a general rule, labor in excess of sixty hours a week…may endanger the health of those who thus labor…. Our duty, I submit, is to sustain the statute as not being in conflict with the Federal Constitution.

 

       - Justice Harlan, in his dissenting opinion

 

 

54.    Which of the following is the best way to summarize the difference between the two opinions?

A.     Peckham argues for judicial activism to limit government power; Harlan argues for judicial restraint, but for a more active role by government.

B.     Peckham argues that legislatures have a role to play in civil society; Harlan argues that such a role should be reserved only for the courts.

C.     Peckham emphasizes the power of the states; Harlan emphasizes the power of the federal government.

D.     Peckham emphasizes the power of the legislatures; Harlan emphasizes the power of the courts.

 

Key

 A

The following question refers to the descriptions below of two different electoral systems.

Most democratic countries elect legislatures through one of two types of electoral systems: single-member district or proportional representation. In single-member district systems, citizens in specific areas vote for candidates who represent their districts. In proportional representation systems, citizens in the country vote for political parties. Parties are then awarded seats in the legislature proportionate to the percentage of the vote they have won. In other words, if a party wins 20 percent of the vote, it receives 20 percent of the seats in the legislature.

 

 

55.    Why will countries with proportional representation systems tend to have more political parties than those with single-member district systems?

A.     Only large countries tend to use proportional representation systems, and these countries naturally have more parties.

B.     Countries with proportional representation systems tend to be more sharply divided along ethnic and regional lines, and many parties tend to arise as groups struggle to defend their interests.

C.     Parties in proportional representation systems do not have to win a majority of the vote in any district, so it is easier for smaller parties to gain representation in the legislature.

D.     Countries with proportional representation systems tend to have constitutions that mandate the existence of more than three political parties.

 

Key

 C

The following question refers to the descriptions below of two different electoral systems.

Most democratic countries elect legislatures through one of two types of electoral systems: single-member district or proportional representation. In single-member district systems, citizens in specific areas vote for candidates who represent their districts. In proportional representation systems, citizens in the country vote for political parties. Parties are then awarded seats in the legislature proportionate to the percentage of the vote they have won. In other words, if a party wins 20 percent of the vote, it receives 20 percent of the seats in the legislature.

 

 

56.    Which of the following is the best argument that a proportional representation system is better than a single-member district system?

A.     In proportional representation systems, elected representatives will be more likely to actively defend the interests of the regions they were elected to represent.

B.     In proportional representation systems, the balance of power in the legislature is more representative of the popular vote.

C.     Proportional representation systems tend to be less bureaucratic.

D.     Proportional representation systems are more likely to promote strong majorities in legislatures.

 

Key

 B

The following question refers to the descriptions below of two different electoral systems.

Most democratic countries elect legislatures through one of two types of electoral systems: single-member district or proportional representation. In single-member district systems, citizens in specific areas vote for candidates who represent their districts. In proportional representation systems, citizens in the country vote for political parties. Parties are then awarded seats in the legislature proportionate to the percentage of the vote they have won. In other words, if a party wins 20 percent of the vote, it receives 20 percent of the seats in the legislature.

 

 

57.    Which of the following is the best argument that a single-member district system is better than a proportional representation system?

A.     Voters should make choices about individual candidates, as they do in single-member district systems, rather than simply vote for a party.

B.     Single-member district systems lead to stronger political parties, which are good for democracy.

C.     Single-member district systems are better at representing the interests of minorities.

D.     Voters will make wiser choices if they focus on national issues, as they do in single-member district systems, rather than on local issues, as they tend to do in proportional representation systems.

 

Key

 A

58.    The primary purpose of the Bill of Rights was to

A.     limit the spread of slavery in the United States

B.     limit the power of the federal government

C.     establish judicial review

D.     allot specific powers to the states

 

Key

 B

59.    Explain  two ways that democratic society benefits from citizens actively participating in the political process.

1.

__________________________________________________________________

 

__________________________________________________________________

 

__________________________________________________________________

 

__________________________________________________________________

2.

__________________________________________________________________

 

__________________________________________________________________

 

__________________________________________________________________

 

__________________________________________________________________

 

 

 

Scoring Guide

 

Score & Description

Complete

The response successfully describes two ways in which society as a whole benefits from citizen involvement. Emphasis is placed on the benefits to society rather than to an individual.

Partial

The response successfully describes one salutary impact. The other description, if present, is either trivial or is from the point of view of how citizen participation benefits individuals rather than society.

Unacceptable

The response does not describe any of the salutary impacts of citizen involvement in politics.

 

Credited response could include:

– If people participate in the political process, their opinions will be more represented in the society, therefore the society will be more diverse and more representative of the makeup of the population.

 

– If people participate, they have a greater stake in the society and care more about what happens/take more responsibility for society.

 

– If people actively participate in the political process, then government institutions and government leaders more accurately reflect the will of the people.

 

– The society is less apt to be tyrannically controlled by the will of individuals or small groups if all citizens actively participate in the political process. The more people participate, the stronger the democracy will be.

 

 

 

60.    Explain in your own words what the blindfold and scales on the figure of justice mean.

 

__________________________________________________________________

 

__________________________________________________________________

 

__________________________________________________________________

 

__________________________________________________________________

 

Give one reason why the values represented by the figure are important to American constitutional democracy.

 

 

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

 

Scoring Guide

 

Score & Description

Complete

Response explains the meaning of both the scales and the blindfold symbols, and offers a reason for why the values represented by the symbols are important to American constitutional democracy.

 

 

OR

 

Response gives a good general explanation that encompasses the meaning of both symbols and offers a reason why the values represented by the symbols are important to American constitutional democracy.

 

Acceptable

Response explains the meaning of BOTH symbols but does not offer a reason why the values are important to constitutional democracy.

 

 

OR

 

Response explains the meaning of either the blindfold or the scales and offers a reason why the symbol is important to constitutional democracy.

 

Partial

Response explains the meaning of either the scales or the blindfold, or offers a reason for why the values represented by the symbol are important to American constitutional democracy.

Unacceptable

Response does not explain the use of blindfold or scales in the graphic.

 

PART I:

 

 

Scales: fair weighing of evidence/hearing both sides of a case

Blindfold: lack of prejudice/equality before the law

 

PART 2:

 

 

 

The response should indicate that a constitutional government is based on justice, law, or the rule of law and that, to follow the law, individuals need to believe that they will be treated fairly and equally by the justice system. If this is not the case, then concepts of law and justice will be undermined, as will constitutional government itself.

 

– The values represented result in a stronger judicial system that upholds the law.

 

– If citizens are to follow the law, they need to believe the justice system treats them fairly.

 

 

 

– Values are important because America is such a diverse society and all groups need to know they will be treated equally by/before the law.

 

– Citizens would view our government negatively if denied equal justice.

 

Do Not Accept:

 

-"Justice is blind," unless linked to the idea of equality before the law or lack of bias/prejudice.

 

-"Fairness of justice," without further elaboration linking it to equality, lack of bias, or weighing of evidence.

 

61.    Imagine that Congress is considering severe cutbacks in the Social Security program. Which of the following national interest groups would be most concerned about and opposed to such a policy?

A.     Mothers Against Drunk Drivers

B.     American Association of Retired Persons

C.     National Association for the Advancement of Colored People

D.     American Bar Association

 

Key

 B

62.    What happens to most of the bills introduced in the House of Representatives?

A.     They become laws.

B.     They are passed but then vetoed by the President.

C.     They are passed by the House but not by the Senate.

D.     They are never sent by committees to the full House.

 

Key

 D

63.    At the Constitutional Convention, there was a major debate between large states and small states about representation in the new Congress. This debate was resolved by the Connecticut Compromise, which said that

A.     the number of citizens in a state would determine how many seats that state had in Congress, but slaves and other noncitizens would not be counted for this purpose

B.     Congress would have two houses in which the number of seats a state had in each house was based on its population

C.     Congress would have two houses, one in which state representation was based on population and one in which all states had equal representation

D.     Congress would be made up of two houses in which all states had an equal number of representatives in each house

 

Key

 C

The following question refers to the map below. The town in the map, Michaelston, needs to create a waste landfill. The landfill will be located at site A, B, or C shown on the map.

 

 

64.    Imagine that the decision has been made to locate the landfill at the site near the school. What would be one of the first actions students could legally take to protest this decision and try to have the landfill placed in another location?

A.     Appear before the town council to request that the landfill be placed elsewhere.

B.     Encourage parents to refuse to pay federal income taxes.

C.     Petition international environmental organizations so that they can help move the landfill elsewhere.

D.     Refuse to go to school until the decision is changed.

 

Key

 A

The following question refers to the map below. The town in the map, Michaelston, needs to create a waste landfill. The landfill will be located at site A, B, or C shown on the map.

 

 

65.    The federal government would likely become involved in the decision about where to locate the landfill if the landfill threatened to

A.     lower the value of property in surrounding areas

B.     cause the quality of the reservoir water to fall below the standards set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

C.     interfere with the local tourist trade

D.     lead to the recall of members of the town and state governments

 

Key

 B

The following question refers to the map below. The town in the map, Michaelston, needs to create a waste landfill. The landfill will be located at site A, B, or C shown on the map.

 

 

66.    The state government would be most likely to become involved in the decision about where to locate the landfill if developers tried to put the landfill on a site that

A.     was near an army base within the state

B.     created conflicts among the citizens of the town

C.     was near a town park

D.     was likely to affect agriculture in other counties in the state

 

Key

 D

The following question refers to the map below. The town in the map, Michaelston, needs to create a waste landfill. The landfill will be located at site A, B, or C shown on the map.

 

 

67.    Is the landfill most likely to be located at site A, B, or C? Explain why it is more likely to be located at that site than at the other two sites.

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

 

Scoring Guide

 

Score & Description

Complete

Response identifies site A or C, and backs up the choice with an explanation of why it is the most likely to be chosen.

 

 

OR

 

Response identifies one thing wrong with each of the other sites.

 

Partial

Response identifies a site and gives an explanation as to why it is the most likely to be chosen, but the explanation is vague or weak. For example, "Site C is the least dangerous."

Unacceptable

Response may identify a site, but gives no explanation as to why it is most likely to be chosen. Site B is NOT an acceptable site choice.

 

Credited responses could include:

SITE A:

 

– Because of the factory, this area is already polluted.

 

– Factories already produce waste; landfill convenient to it.

 

– The land may be cheaper than other sites.

 

– Location at either Site B or C would lower homeowners’ property values.

 

– Site A, by being the farthest from the residential zone and the reservoir’s drainage area, would have the least effect on the water system.

 

– This site is not near where people live or near recreational activities, so people won’t object.

 

SITE C:

 

– Because it is near a major road, people wouldn’t want to build houses here anyway.

 

– Proximity to a major road is convenient for trucks delivering loads to the landfill.

 

– This site is far enough from developed areas that people won’t be bothered by the smell, etc.

 

– Because of existing undeveloped land, environmental issues might arise such as wildlife prairie grass, etc.

 

The following question refers to the map below. The town in the map, Michaelston, needs to create a waste landfill. The landfill will be located at site A, B, or C shown on the map.

 

 

68.    Which of the following would be true for someone who wanted to open a small business in zone III?

A.     She could open the business whenever she raised the necessary funds.

B.     She would need to get permission from the federal government.

C.     She would need to get a zoning variance from the town planning board.

D.     She would need to have a petition signed by a majority of community members in favor of the business.

 

Key

 C

The following question is based on the excerpt below from the Supreme Court decision in  Brown v.  Board of Education of Topeka (1954).

Does segregation of children in public schools solely on the basis of race, even though the physical facilities . . . may be equal, deprive children of the minority group of equal educational opportunities? We believe that it does.

 

To separate them from others of similar age and qualifications solely on the basis of their race generates a feeling of inferiority as to their status and community that may affect their hearts and minds in a way unlikely to ever be undone. . . . Whatever may have been the extent of psychological knowledge at the time of  Plessy v.  Ferguson, this finding is amply supported by modern authority. Any language in  Plessy v.  Ferguson contrary to this finding is rejected.

 

We conclude that in the field of public education, the doctrine of separate but equal has no place. Separate educational facilities are inherently unequal.

 

 

69.    The segregated educational system described in the decision was the result of

A.     state laws

B.     federal laws

C.     federal regulations

D.     executive orders

 

Key

 A

The following question is based on the excerpt below from the Supreme Court decision in  Brown v.  Board of Education of Topeka (1954).

Does segregation of children in public schools solely on the basis of race, even though the physical facilities . . . may be equal, deprive children of the minority group of equal educational opportunities? We believe that it does.

 

To separate them from others of similar age and qualifications solely on the basis of their race generates a feeling of inferiority as to their status and community that may affect their hearts and minds in a way unlikely to ever be undone. . . . Whatever may have been the extent of psychological knowledge at the time of  Plessy v.  Ferguson, this finding is amply supported by modern authority. Any language in  Plessy v.  Ferguson contrary to this finding is rejected.

 

We conclude that in the field of public education, the doctrine of separate but equal has no place. Separate educational facilities are inherently unequal.

 

 

70.    The second paragraph discusses an earlier court decision in  Plessy v.  Ferguson. You can conclude that the Plessy decision had allowed

A.     districts to use busing to integrate schools

B.     schools to have "separate but equal" educational facilities

C.     free public education for all citizens

D.     new federal support to finance education for minority students

 

Key

 B

The following question is based on the excerpt below from the Supreme Court decision in  Brown v.  Board of Education of Topeka (1954).

Does segregation of children in public schools solely on the basis of race, even though the physical facilities . . . may be equal, deprive children of the minority group of equal educational opportunities? We believe that it does.

 

To separate them from others of similar age and qualifications solely on the basis of their race generates a feeling of inferiority as to their status and community that may affect their hearts and minds in a way unlikely to ever be undone. . . . Whatever may have been the extent of psychological knowledge at the time of  Plessy v.  Ferguson, this finding is amply supported by modern authority. Any language in  Plessy v.  Ferguson contrary to this finding is rejected.

 

We conclude that in the field of public education, the doctrine of separate but equal has no place. Separate educational facilities are inherently unequal.

 

 

71.    Which part of the United States Constitution did the Court most likely use to support its decision?

A.     Article 4

B.     The Tenth Amendment

C.     The Thirteenth Amendment

D.     The Fourteenth Amendment

 

Key

 D

The following question is based on the excerpt below from the Supreme Court decision in  Brown v.  Board of Education of Topeka (1954).

Does segregation of children in public schools solely on the basis of race, even though the physical facilities . . . may be equal, deprive children of the minority group of equal educational opportunities? We believe that it does.

 

To separate them from others of similar age and qualifications solely on the basis of their race generates a feeling of inferiority as to their status and community that may affect their hearts and minds in a way unlikely to ever be undone. . . . Whatever may have been the extent of psychological knowledge at the time of  Plessy v.  Ferguson, this finding is amply supported by modern authority. Any language in  Plessy v.  Ferguson contrary to this finding is rejected.

 

We conclude that in the field of public education, the doctrine of separate but equal has no place. Separate educational facilities are inherently unequal.

 

 

72.    How did the decision affect the relationship between the federal government and state and local governments?

A.     The federal government exerted greater influence in a policy area that had been dominated by states and municipalities.

B.     The federal government began directly determining what would be taught in public classrooms.

C.     State governments were restricted in their ability to mandate the teaching of religion in public schools.

D.     State and local governments became less dependent on federal funding for education.

 

Key

 A

The following question refers to the statement below.

The United States is not a fully democratic country. The framers of the Constitution created a system in which majorities—even large majorities or their representatives in Congress—do not have the right to do anything and everything they want.

 

 

73.    Which aspect of the American system of government shows one of the limits on the power of majorities discussed above?

A.     The ability of Congress to override presidential vetoes

B.     The Supreme Court’s power to overturn unconstitutional laws

C.     The right of Congress to impeach Presidents and federal judges

D.     The ability of people in many states to vote public initiatives into law

 

Key

 B

The following question refers to the statement below.

The United States is not a fully democratic country. The framers of the Constitution created a system in which majorities—even large majorities or their representatives in Congress—do not have the right to do anything and everything they want.

 

 

74.    The framers of the Constitution wanted to limit the power of majorities in order to

A.     encourage the growth of political parties

B.     ensure that state governments would remain weak

C.     enable the government to act quickly in times of crisis

D.     protect the rights of individuals and minorities

 

Key

 D

The following question refers to the two documents below.

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances.

 

          - First Amendment to the United States Constitution

 

Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security and is entitled to realization, through national effort and international cooperation and in accordance with the organization and resources of each State, of the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality.

 

          - Article 22 of the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948

 

 

75.    The two documents show a common concern for

A.     free speech

B.     economic rights

C.     individual rights

D.     group rights

 

Key

 C

The following question refers to the two documents below.

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances.

 

          - First Amendment to the United States Constitution

 

Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security and is entitled to realization, through national effort and international cooperation and in accordance with the organization and resources of each State, of the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality.

 

          - Article 22 of the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948

 

 

76.    Why have documents such as the United Nations Universal Declaration been opposed by some citizens in the United States?

A.     Some people fear that international agreements will force the United States to act in ways not consistent with its national interest.

B.     Americans see economic equality as more important than individual liberty.

C.     Some people believe that the government should be free to limit speech and assembly rights where necessary.

D.     Most people do not believe that there are universal human rights.

 

Key

 A